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Investigators will establish a longitudinal cohort of 3,000 adults >18 years in Port-au-Prince using multistage random sampling, and follow them for 2 to 3.5 years depending on the timing of study enrollment to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and diseases. Cardiovascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, kidney disease, poor diet, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and inflammation. Cardiovascular disease include myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and CVD mortality. It is anticipated that hypertension prevalence will be ≥10% in 18-30 year olds, that hypertension incidence will be >10 events/1000 person years. Association of determinants and risk factors with CVD will also be examined. Whole blood, serum, plasma, stool, and urine samples will be biobanked for future studies.
Mindful walking is a meditation practice that combines physical activity and mindfulness practice. This study examined whether a mindful walking intervention increased physical activity and improved health outcomes. The investigators conducted a randomized experiment among adults with inadequate physical activity, whereby the intervention group received a four-week, one-hour-per-week mindful walking intervention and the control group received instructions to increase physical activity (N=38). Participants in both groups received a wrist-worn step count device as participation incentive. Physical activity and health outcomes were measured with an online survey and data obtained from the wearable device at baseline (T1), post-intervention (T2), and one month after the intervention (T3).
This is an interventional study enrolling older individuals aged 60-85y to observe changes during physical inactivity. This study is investigating the relation between short-term physical inactivity and the impact of muscle health and function. The enrollment goal is 15 participants. The study will occur over the course of a month where participants will undergo testing before and after a reduction in physically activity levels. There will be a screening event collecting baseline data, two body composition scans, muscle function and oral glucose tolerance tests and a metabolic study before and after a 2-week period of inactivity. Each metabolic study will entail three-muscle biopsies: one before and 2 after the ingestion of leucine.
This is a non randomized study to determine the effects of Gentle Jogger(GJ), a passive jogging device on oxygen consumption in 2 postures supine and seated. Oxygen consumption measurements will be performed via indirect calorimetry in duplicate at rest ( supine and seated posture) , and repeated in duplicate during GJ (in supine and seated posture)
This experiment consists on a 20-day reduction in daily step in free-living active individuals to induce physical inactivity. This will be used to test the efficacy of the anti-oxidant cocktail we aim to test as a new countermeasure in 2016 during the 60-d bed rest planed by ESA/CNES. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the cocktail of natural antioxidants XXS-2A comprising vitamin E and coupled with omega-3 helps to prevent and / or reduce the glucose intolerance and improve oxidative defenses induced by 20 days of physical inactivity through daily step reduction Although physical inactivity is reported to affect glucose tolerance within days of inactivity, we selected a period of 20 days for the effect of the cocktail to take place and assess secondary molecular mechanisms. The effect of this short period of inactivity on metabolism will moreover be boosted during the last 10 days by taking fructose, a sugar found in abundance in fruits, honey and juices, which is known to quickly trigger metabolic deregulation.
Physical inactivity has reached pandemic proportions and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Of particular concern is that most middle to older age adults fall far short of recommendations for health enhancing physical activities. This research takes a novel approach to tackling this problem by combining mindfulness with behavioral strategies in a unique 'Mindful Movement' program offered through YMCA community facilities.
Physical inactivity results in reductions in glucose tolerance and less sensitivity to insulin. If this inactivity lasts long enough it can result in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A high protein diet can reduce elevated glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Thus the investigators are interested in establishing if during a period of inactivity if a diet modification can minimize the glucose changes normally observed with inactivity. The objective of this project is to determine if short-term high protein (HP) feeding protects against the changes in glucose levels normally observed with physical inactivity. The investigators will also examine measures of blood vessel function, blood lipid and blood pressure. Twelve subjects will complete two 10 day study periods of reduced physical activity and will be studied before and after each of these study periods. For their testing subjects will have the following measurements: postprandial glucose responses to a mixed meal, 24 h free living blood pressure control during acute physical inactivity, blood lipids, changes in body composition, changes in circadian rhythm using skin temperature (ibutton), measurement of aerobic capacity (VO2 max), blood vessel responsiveness (flow mediated dilation -FMD) and changes in free living glucose levels (continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Subjects will complete two conditions (high protein -HP vs normal protein - NP diets) in a randomized cross-over design. In the inactive phase subjects will reduce there steps to <5,000 steps/d while consuming either a HP or NP diet. Completion of the study will take 8-10 weeks.
The majority of today's youth do not engage in enough physical activity (PA) to maintain good health. Low PA levels are associated with poor health (e.g. diabetes, high blood pressure) and early mortality. Girls are less likely than boys to be active, and their rates of participation drop off more steeply during adolescence. Girls report many barriers to exercise, including transportation issues and feeling self-conscious about their appearance and abilities. School-based PA programs that try to improve health, mainly through aerobic exercise and education, have had a small effect to date. However, the few programs that included resistance training as the focus showed strong improvements in health related measures. In this project, we will examine the effect of a female strength and conditioning specialist on decreasing barriers and increasing the overall health of high school girls, with the delivery of in-school, girls-only resistance training programs. We will see if physical and mental health changes with the training, and how the presence of the S & C specialist affects the girls' social interactions within the school. The results will help individuals in the education sector plan programs and services to improve overall youth and school health.
The Men on the Move Study is a randomized, controlled, feasibility study designed to address the health problem of physical inactivity in older men.
The purpose of this study is to inform the integration of mobile and social media components into larger interventions aimed at increasing adherence and maintenance of physical activity. Nearly half of the US population do not meet physical activity recommendations of ≥150 minutes of moderate activity per week. The use of smartphones to "self track" data and upload that data to an online social network is becoming increasingly common and may be an effective way to motivate physical activity adherence and maintenance. We are proposing a two phase study to develop and evaluate a mobile health ("mHealth") intervention that includes the use of two existing technologies: 1) the RunKeeper mobile app to collect and upload exercise data (distance, pace, time), and 2) the RunKeeper.com online social network as a place to analyze uploaded data and engage with a coach and online community. Phase 1 (n=10) will iteratively develop the mHealth intervention and phase 2 (n=30) will pilot the mHealth intervention (participants will be randomized to either mHealth intervention (n=20) or control (n=10)) to collect feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy data. All participants will attend a day-long ChiWalk/Run training to help them avoid potential injuries and meet their coach and community in-person. All participants will also be asked to wear a FitBit accelerometer from one week before the beginning of the intervention through one week after the end of the intervention to collect total physical activity data. This data will be uploaded automatically to the study data base. Primary outcomes will be total physical activity as collected by the FitBit accelerometer (and the RunKeeper mobile app for the intervention group) and secondary outcomes will be changes in psychological factors that may mediate adherence to physical activity.