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Clinical Trial Summary

Obesity is defined as the accumulation of excessive fat, attributed to the maintenance of a positive energy imbalance between calorie intake and expenditure. Obesity contributes to the development of many comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemias, among others. Dyslipidemias indicate a high concentration of lipids in the blood. Dyslipidemias cause more than 4 million premature deaths per year. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex as it involves environmental, sociocultural, physiological, medical, behavioral, genetic, epigenetic, and many other factors. On the other hand, the causes of dyslipidemias can be: genetic / hereditary (primary dyslipidemias) or an inadequate lifestyle (secondary dyslipidemias). Sufficient evidence indicates that lifestyle, mainly diet, plays a decisive role in the development of diseases such as obesity and dyslipidemias, in addition to that, recent research shows the importance of individual genetic predisposition to suffer from diseases. Data based on genome-wide association studies suggest a genetic predisposition for obesity and dyslipidemias with identification of various genes and genetic variations associated with these conditions. In this sense, the postulates of nutrigenetics as applied science are emphasized, since it states that food components can act on the human genome, directly or indirectly, to alter the expression of genes and gene products; diet can potentially compensate or accentuate the effects of genetic polymorphisms; and the consequences of a certain diet depend on the balance of health and disease states and the genetic background of an individual. Therefore, when advising a change in diet and lifestyle as prevention and as part of the treatment for obesity and dyslipidemias, it is considered that a nutrigenetic intervention, that is, the administration of a diet designed according to genotypic characteristics and personal phenotypic, will have a much greater positive impact on the health status of people with detected genetic variations that make them susceptible to these pathologies. For this reason, the implementation of nutrigenetic interventions could be a timely and successful avant-garde treatment to mitigate various cardiometabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias and others that are highly prevalent worldwide.


Clinical Trial Description

After the selection of the population, the patients undergo a molecular diagnosis: DNA will be extracted from peripheral blood with the High Pure PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Template Preparation Kit (Roche). Then certain polymorphisms will be determined by allelic discrimination with TaqMan® probes with real-time PCR. The polymorphisms under study will be the following: ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1) rs9282541 PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma) rs1801282 LIPC (hepatic lipase) rs1800588 CETP (Cholesteryl ester transfer protein) rs708272 LPL (Lipoprotein lipase) rs13702 FABP2 (fatty acid binding protein 2) rs1799883 APOA5 (Apolipoprotein A-V) rs662799 APOC3 (Apolipoprotein C-III) rs5128 APOA1 (Apolipoprotein A-I) rs670 APOE (Apolipoprotein E) rs429358 and rs7412 Patients will be randomized into two different treatment groups. Randomization will be stratified according to age, BMI and sex. The allocation ratio will be 1: 1 and parallel intervention.Then, trained nutritionists will deliver the intervention according to the patient group and they will be followed-up for 8 weeks, which includes 3 face-to-face evaluations (baseline, 1st month and final) and 5 remote consultations, via zoom, every 15 days Interventions will be provided as follows: NUTRIGENETIC DIET INTERVENTION Weekly, personalized meal plans (menus) will be provided, prepared based on the anthropometric needs of the patients, with a caloric reduction (-500 kcal). These weekly menus (Sunday to Monday) consist of 5 meal times (breakfast, snack, lunch, snack and dinner). The distribution of the macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins and fats, as well as the percentages of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, will be established according to certain nutrigenetic recommendations identified in the reference bibliography. CONVENTIONAL DIET INTERVENTION Weekly, personalized meal plans (menus) will be provided, prepared based on the anthropometric needs of the patients, with a caloric reduction (-500 kcal). These weekly menus (Sunday to Monday) consist of 5 meal times (breakfast, snack, lunch, snack and dinner). The distribution of the macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins and fats, as well as the percentages of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, will be in accordance with the recommendations made by the WHO (World Health Organization), the AHA (American Heart Association) and the NOM (Official Mexican Standards) for the treatment of obesity and dyslipidemias The 3 face-to-face evaluations (baseline, 1st month, final) will include anthropometric and biochemical evaluations. Therefore, the following criteria will be measured: Weight (kg) Height (cm) BMI(kg/m2) Waist circumference and hip circumference (cm) Blood pressure Body composition determination Blood will be obtained from the antecubital vein, it will be centrifuged to obtain the serum and later it will determine: Glucose (mg / dL) Total cholesterol (mg / dL) Triglycerides (mg / dL) HDL-c (mg / dL) LDL-c (mg / dL) VLDL-c (mg / dL) Insulin (microIU/mL) C-reactive protein (mg/L) Interleukins, among other parameters Every 15 days there will be virtual remote consultations, through the zoom platform. In these sessions, the nutritional clinical history and various medical and dietary questionnaires will be applied to evaluate secondary results. In addition, a new food plan will be delivered, according to the needs of the participant and taking into account the characteristics of the experimental treatment to which they belong. This research will be conducted at The Institute of Translational Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics, Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, Health Sciences University Center, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico ;


Study Design


Related Conditions & MeSH terms


NCT number NCT05210023
Study type Interventional
Source Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente
Contact
Status Completed
Phase N/A
Start date June 9, 2021
Completion date December 22, 2021

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