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Cryptosporidium species are increasingly recognized as important enteric pathogens that infect a broad range of hosts including human, domestic and wild animals worldwide, causing asymptomatic or mild-to-severe gastrointestinal disease in their host species. There are 38 species of Cryptosporidium that have been described, going from amphibian parasites to mammals ones, with over 40 genotypes infecting mammals, although Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are the two species predominantly reported in human infections. In Cairo and Sharkyia governorates in Egypt, Cryptosporidium is a common intestinal parasite among children, especially in diarrheic, preschool-aged children, with a predominance of C. hominis indicates anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Also in the sohag governorate, Cryptosporidium infection is a common intestinal parasite, as in the last five years its prevalence about 35% but there is no study clarify predominant genotype of Cryptosporidium in sohag.
The purpose of this Phase I controlled human infection model (CHIM) study was to determine if oral administration of a good manufacturing practice (GMP) supply of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (ABO809) to healthy volunteers resulted in a Cryptosporidium infection and diarrheal illness. The study measured fecal oocysts (parasitological endpoint) as well as diarrhea and associated signs and symptoms (clinical endpoint).
It has been reported that Cryptosporidium parvum, a species of a protozoan frequently isolated from humans and animals, is able to induce digestive adenocarcinoma in a rodent model. Consistently, some epidemiological studies have reported an association with cryptosporidiosis in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. However, the correlation between cryptosporidiosis and human digestive cancer remains unclear at this time, and it is not known whether this intracellular parasite, considered an opportunistic agent, is able to induce gastrointestinal malignancies in humans. In order to add new arguments for a probable association between cryptosporidiosis and digestive human cancer, the main aim of this study is to determine prevalence and to identify species of Cryptosporidium among a French digestive cancer population.
Background: 1. Burden: Cryptosporidiosis among the top 10 causes of diarrhea in the 1st year of life in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), with an estimated total of 48,000 annual deaths and accounting for 4.2 million disability-adjusted life years lost. 2. Knowledge gap: The only approved drug for the treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium infection is Nitazoxanide (NTZ) but NTZ has a higher failure rate in malnourished children. The lack of effective therapy for cryptosporidiosis remains an immense knowledge gap in the efforts to improve childhood health worldwide. Hypothesis: NTZ treatment failure in malnourished infants is due to a secondary immune deficiency that can be reversed by the appropriate therapeutic treatment. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 can have a potential immune modulating effect by altering gut microbiome promoting NTZ action. Objectives: Primary: • To develop new approaches to treat and prevent cryptosporidiosis Secondary: - Determination of the treatment outcome of NTZ against cryptosporidiosis in Bangladeshi children. - Determination of the change in effectiveness of NTZ treatment in conjunction with the administration of probiotics in malnourished Bangladeshi children with cryptosporidiosis Methods: This will be a prospectively conducted randomized pilot study with 2 arms in children in the Mirpur (Dhaka, Bangladesh) slum area, where cryptosporidium infected children will receive Nitazoxanide treatment with or without the probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. Outcome measures/variables: The significance of the work lies in the ability of the study to provide new approaches to treat and prevent Cryptosporidiosis. The goal of this work is to assess the efficacy of NTZ drug in a low socioeconomic Bangladeshi population and establish new supportive therapeutic measures to the already established treatment with NTZ against in cryptosporidiosis.
This study evaluates the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of treating Cryptosporidiosis in HIV positive patients with Clofazimine. Half of the HIV positive patients with Cryptosporidiosis enrolled will be treated with Clofazimine while the other half will be given placebo. An additional group of HIV positive patients without Cryptosporidium infection or diarrhea will be given Clofazimine to assess the differences in pharmacokinetics between HIV positive patients with and without Cryptosporidiosis and diarrhea.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of Cryptosporidiosis in Bangladeshi children and describe the acquired immune response to the pathogen as well investigate the potential of human genetic susceptibility.
The purpose of this study is to understand how breast milk may protect infants from infection and promote favorable immunological, growth and development outcomes. By following mothers and their infants, we will evaluate the important interactions between infant immune responses and infectious disease events in relation to breast milk composition and feeding patterns. Our aim is to identify a set of predictive factors corresponding to healthy early infant growth and development in this setting in Northern Tanzania.
The aim of the study is to examine the efficacy of ceramic water filters to reduce the burden of waterborne diarrheal illness among infants in selected villages in Kenya. In Kenya very young children are given drinking water or water is used in reconstitution of their food. We hypothesize that ceramic water filters will remove Cryptosporidium from drinking water reducing infection in infants.
Cryptosporidium is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in children and adults. In addition to infection of the stomach, this parasite can infect the respiratory system causing a cough and/or problems breathing. This study will enroll 480 children between the ages of 9 and 36 months who come to Mulago Hospital for treatment of diarrhea. Researchers believe a large number of children with diarrhea and cough will have the parasite present in their sputum (mucus coughed up). Researchers also believe that children who have respiratory tract cryptosporidiosis may have a cough, increased number of breaths per minute, and/or a lower oxygen level. Blood, stool, saliva, and sputum samples will be collected from all children in the study and tested for Cryptosporidium. Children too young to provide a sputum sample will have a tube placed to collect a mucus sample from the lungs. Study participation may be as short as 4 hours or as long as 2 days depending on each child's health.
There is no proven effective treatment for chronic diarrhea caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium in advanced AIDS. This trial will test the safety of interleukin-12 (IL-12) as part of a combination therapy for this parasite.