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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death in the Western world. It can be effectively prevented by removal of pre-malignant polyps during colonoscopy. Large (≥20mm) non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs) represent 2-3% of colorectal polyps and require special attention prior to treatment. If submucosal invasive cancer (SMI) is suspected, careful decision making is required to exclude features which unacceptably increase the risk of lymph node metastases and render local treatment (endoscopic) non-curative. Such patients require a multi-disciplinary approach and consideration of surgery +/- systemic therapy. Unfortunately, current classification systems are complex, require extensive training and technology not available in the majority of non-tertiary hospitals. They are therefore underused leading to incorrect decision making and negative patient outcomes (e.g. piecemeal resection without the chance of endoscopic cure or unnecessary further procedures in referral centres with resultant surgery anyway or surgery for benign disease). Studies from the field of psychology show that humans are often capable of making correct decision based on their Blink (first) impression. It is also suggested that this Blink impression is based on experience and training. This might suggest that experienced or specialist endoscopist are better at diagnosing SMI within colorectal polyp at Blink impression. The investigators hypothesize that by training the Blink impression, endoscopist of varying experience are able to detect cancer within LNPCPs. This can be proven by assessing the Blink impression of endoscopist of varying experience regarding the presence of SMI within LNPCPs. Increasing the accuracy of the determination of SMI within colon polyps would directly translate into improvements in patient care and outcome. For example, if SMI is present and is not suspected, patients may undergo unnecessary endoscopic procedures for an LNPCP which will eventually require surgery anyway (inconvenience, delayed correct treatment). If the incorrect technique is performed in the context of superficial SMI, adequate assessment of complete excision or extent and type of SMI may not be possible and a patient who would otherwise have been cured may require surgery anyway (under-treatment, below standard of care outcome, delay to treatment). Conversely, if SMI is suspected in its absence patients may undergo unnecessary surgery, increased healthcare spends and mortality (over-treatment, unnecessary risk). If the presence of SMI could be accurately determined in real-time using endoscopic imaging, delays to treatment, over-treatment and the associated morbidity for patients could be avoided.
This originated as an observational study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) patients with a history of adenoma diagnosed by colonoscopy who received a subsequent surveillance colonoscopy between 2014 and 2019. The original goal of the study was to develop a risk prediction model that would help identify patients at highest risk for a diagnosis of advanced neoplasia (colorectal cancer and/or advanced adenoma) at or within 6 months following their surveillance colonoscopy. Candidate predictors of interest included patient demographics, medical history, and details related to the index colonoscopy. The investigators are now at the implementation stage and applying the risk prediction model to patients awaiting surveillance colonoscopy at select KPNC service areas to help identify those at highest risk for colorectal cancer based on their risk scores.
Chronic lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including lower abdominal pain, bowel habit change, bleeding per rectum, and abdominal bloating, are caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and organic intestinal disorders, including colorectal cancer and chronic colitis. The presence of alarming features, such as the age of onset older than 50 years, rectal bleeding, anemia, significant weight loss, and family history of colorectal cancer, indicates organic diseases, and colonoscopy should be required. However, using only alarming features may not be sufficiently accurate. For example, anemia or significant weight loss, which are highly specific for organic disorders, usually occur in late-stage diseases. Conversely, the parameters with high sensitivity, such as the age of onset after 50 years, have a low specificity; colonoscopy in these patients may not be urgent. Therefore, tests that can help discriminate organic from functional diseases are warranted. Immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT) and fecal calprotectin (FC) are biomarkers that indicate organic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and could help diagnose patients with lower GI symptoms more accurately.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Overall survival (OS) remains poor, with 50% estimated 5-year survival. In Italy, current estimates indicate that in 2020 a number of 43.700 patients have been affected by colorectal cancer, with an increasing of diagnosed cases in both men and women. It is clear that it is worthwhile to investigate the evaluation of colorectal cancer which could reflect a different spread of screening programs or be the effect of different timing in the start of the programs themselves. To improve the overall survival of colorectal cancer patients, robust biomarkers for screening and predicting disease recurrence could help identify high-risk patients, facilitate a close patient follow-up, and decide appropriate treatment regimens during the postoperative care. Colonoscopy remains the most efficient method for detecting CRC, yet its general application in the setting of screening is limited due to the uncomfortable experience and the high costs. accumulating studies have revealed the potential of systemic inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, neutrophils, platelets, and lymphocytes, and also biomarker combination ratios [(eg, CRP-albumin ratio (CAR), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)] as prognostic biomarkers in different cancers, including CRC. Chronic inflammation affects all stages of tumor development. Several studies have shown that various preoperative markers reflecting systemic inflammatory response, including NLR and CRP ratio, offer predictive potential for postoperative morbidity and mortality in CRC patients. However, several issues require addressing prior to the adoption of these inflammatory markers in the clinical practice for CRC patients undergoing surgery: a) the combination of inflammatory factors that might be best in predicting oncological outcomes in colorectal cancer patients remains unclear; b) previous studies for systemic inflammatory markers have mainly interrogated their prognostic potential for oncological outcomes but have not laid emphasis for evaluating their predictive value for postoperative complications; c) there is a lack of consensus on the cut-off thresholds used for each marker for determining mortality risk resulting from surgical and oncological outcomes.
Research efforts are necessary to identify strategies to increase colorectal screening in underserved patient populations. Racial, ethnic minorities and medically underserved individuals continue to experience disparities in colorectal cancer mortality despite the availability of screening tests that can detect tumors early when treatments are most effective.
The primary purpose of this study is to assess the best method for encouraging high-risk cancer survivors to get screened for colorectal cancer at the recommended age.
Among Latinos, a fast growing and underserved population, Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. Compared to non-Latino whites, Latinos are less likely to be diagnosed with localized CRC and more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage disease. Of the recommended CRC screening tests, a colonoscopy allows for both the detection and removal of precancerous and cancerous polyps. Although screening colonoscopies can detect and prevent CRC, more than half of Latinos have not received a screening colonoscopy within the recommended time frame (one screening colonoscopy per ten years). The purpose of this study is to develop and begin to test an electronically-delivered motivational interviewing progressive web application (e-MI app), called Motívate. The Motívate app will be offered in both English and Spanish to patients who self-identify as Latino/a/x, after they receive a referral for a screening colonoscopy.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can reduce cancer deaths. However, screening and abnormal test follow-up rates are low among underserved populations. The screening rates of 19-58%, and rates of colonoscopy completion after abnormal stool tests of 18-57% in community health centers (CHC) systems are low. This highlights an opportunity to improve early detection and decrease burden of CRC in our region. Mailed outreach and navigation programs have been shown to increase colonoscopy completion rate. The next step is to understand how to best implement these programs in the community on a larger scale. To achieve this goal, the investigators propose a Hub-and-Spoke intervention combining centralized strategies to maximize CRC screening, follow-up, and referral-to-care. The investigators hypothesize that this intervention will be superior to usual care for increasing CRC screening, abnormal test follow-up, and referral-to-care. The investigators will conduct a randomized trial to determine effectiveness in: 1) improvement in proportion of individuals up-to-date with screening 3 years post implementation; 2) proportion with abnormal FIT who complete diagnostic colonoscopy within 6 months; and 3) proportion with CRC completing first treatment evaluation. The investigators will also evaluate the implementation, scalability, and sustainability of the multi-level implementation strategy. The intervention consists of: Mailed FIT and Reminders. Eligible individuals will receive an introductory letter describing the importance of CRC screening and noting that follow-up mail will include a FIT Kit. It will also be offered to patients who completed prior mailed FIT with normal test results. All materials will be in English and Spanish. Two weeks later, participants will receive a packet via mail containing the FIT kit, a one-page invitation inviting FIT completion and FIT instructions, a postage-paid envelope for return to the patient's CHC, and COVID-19 message. For non-compliant individuals not returning the kit, a reminder phone call and text message will be delivered 2 weeks later. The investigators will track returned letters, individuals who are later found to be up-to date with screening, and those who decline screening. The CHC will provide care coordination for patients with an abnormal FIT result.
Postoperative ileus (POI) is one of the most common causes of prolonged hospital stays after abdominal surgery. The pathophysiology of POI is multifactorial and complex.It is known to be associated with sympathetic neural reflexes,local and systemic inflammatory mediators,and changes invarious neural and hormonal transmitters.Sympathetic (adrenergic) hyperactivity results in reduction of propulsive motility,and an increase in sphinctertone.Parasympathetic (cholinergic) hypoactivity results in adecrease in gastrointestinalmotility. Various agents called prokinetic drugs,including erythromycin, metoclopramide, cholinergic agents have been assessed in an effort to improved gastrointestinal motility. Mosapridecitrate is another prokinetic drug that selectively activates 5-HT4 receptors. Mosapride stimulates serotonin receptor in the digestive tract and increases acetylcholine release to promote upper digestive tract (stomach and duodenum) and lower digestive tract (colon) motility and gastric emptying without cardiac side effects. We therefore investigate the effect of mosapride on postoperative gastrointestinal motility after open and laparoscopic colectomy in a prospective randomized, controlled study in patients under going colectomy.
A quasi-experimental non-randomized pre/post with control group trial of two models of cancer survivorship care in early-stage colorectal and breast cancer survivors cared for in a community-based, integrated health care setting.