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The investigators propose to study the value of non invasive continuous transcutaneous PtC02 monitoring for ventilatory withdrawal guidance in neuro-injured patients and to predict the risk of extubation failure in this category of patients, particularly at risk of re-intubation.
The use of quantitative, automated, infrared technology for pupillary examination has long been used in ophthalmology and anesthesiology research. Its interest in neurocritical care has progressively grown, in parallel with the advancements in device technology. In this regard, the use of the noninvasive NPi®-200 pupillometer (Neuroptics, Laguna Hills, California, USA) allows the measurement of a series of dynamic pupillary variables (including the percentage pupillary constriction, latency, constriction velocity, and dilation velocity), which can be integrated into an algorithm, to compute the Neurological Pupil index (NPi). The NPi is a proprietary scalar index with values between 0 and 5 (with a 0.1 decimal precision), an NPi value < 3 indicating an abnormal pupillary reactivity. Importantly, the NPi is not influenced by sedation-analgesia, at the doses used in neurocritical care practice, and by mild hypothermia. Preliminary single-center data recently demonstrated that abnormal NPi is associated with worse outcome in patients with traumatic and hemorrhagic ABI, and can be a useful adjunct for ICP monitoring and therapy. There is currently a great need for quantitative tools to predict early prognostication in ABI patients, and the NPi appears of potential great value. We hypothesize that: 1. Abnormal NPi (defined as NPi <3) are strongly predictive of poor GOS-E (1-4) at 6 months after the acute event. 2. NPi=0 is strongly predictive of mortality (GOS 1). 3. Abnormal NPi is predictive of a higher ICP 20 index (number of end-hourly measures of ICP >20 mm Hg divided by the total number of measurements, multiplied by 100) and a greater burden of interventions needed to control ICP (measured by the Therapy Intensity Level scale for ICP management, Therapy Intensity Level (TIL) 4). Methods This international multicentre prospective observational study aims to recruit >400 patients admitted to intensive care units. Duration of the study 18 months, including 12-month of recruitment based on 60 patients/centre plus 6 months GOS-E follow-up.
Rationale Several experimental and clinical studies have shown how brain injury can cause secondary lung injury. Lung injury could be due either to mechanical ventilation- often necessary in brain injured patients- or to inflammatory response that follows primary acute brain injury. The concept of 'Protective lung ventilation' has shown to reduce morbidity and mortality of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but seems also to have a beneficial effect on patients with healthy lungs and in the perioperative settings. However, these recommendations often come into conflict with the management of patients affected by acute brain injury, in which permissive hypercapnia and increased intrathoracic pressure as consequence of protective ventilation strategies can be dangerous. Study design This is an international multi-center prospective observational study. Study population This study will include all consecutive brain injured patients (traumatic brain injury (TBI) or cerebrovascular) intubated and ventilated in ICU and observed for a 7-day period. Nature and extent of the burden and risks associated with participation, benefit and group relatedness Seen the observational design of the study, there is no patient burden. Collection of data from ICU and hospital charts and/or (electronic) medical records systems is of no risk to patients.
This trial in brain-injured patients will test which of the following will lead to better patient outcomes: (1) an airway management pathway consisting of daily assessments and removal of the breathing tube as soon as patients can breathe on their own and appear able to protect their airway; versus (2) the usual treatment patients would have received if they were not enrolled in this trial.
The BIPER study is a stepped wedge cluster randomised clinical trial aiming to decrease extubation failure in critically-ill brain-injured patients with residual impaired consciousness using a simple clinical score.
Efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Wendan decoction) combined with conventional neurologic intensive care in patients with acute moderated to severe brain injury in early stage - A randomized controlled study.
During invasive mechanical ventilation, maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure (Pcuff) around 25 cmH2O is recommended for sealing the upper airways. The continuous control of Pcuff with a simple mechanical device, the Tracoe Smart CuffmanagerTM, has never been assessed. The investigators hypothesize that the Tracoe Smart CuffmanagerTM would allow a reduction of the incidence of underinflation episodes, as compared with the intermittent strategy of Pcuff control.
This is a single institutional registry database for the patients with stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. Despite extensive research, most of the patients die or suffer from varying degree of post-stroke disabilities due to neurologic deficits. This registry aims to understand the disease and examine the disease dynamics in the local community.
The present study is an explorative analysis of the relationship between cerebral blood perfusion and oxygenation and lung mechanical variables at different ventilator settings. It is a safety study excluding patients with severe lung injury or brain edema.
Patients who experience lung injury are often placed on a ventilator to help them heal; however, if the ventilator volume settings are too high, it can cause additional lung injury. It is proven that using lower ventilator volume settings improves outcomes. In patients with acute brain injury, it is proven that maintaining a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood improves outcomes. Mechanical ventilator settings with higher volumes and higher breathing rates are sometimes required to maintain a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide. These 2 goals of mechanical ventilation, using lower volumes to prevent additional lung injury but maintaining a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, are both important for patients with acute brain injury. The investigators have designed a computerized ventilator protocol in iCentra that matches the current standard of care for mechanical ventilation of patients with acute brain injury by targeting a normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide with the lowest ventilator volume required. This is a quality improvement study with the purpose of observing and measuring the effects of implementation of a standard of care mechanical ventilation protocol for patients with acute brain injury in the iCentra electronic medical record system at Intermountain Medical Center. We hypothesize that implementation of a standardized neuro lung protective ventilation protocol will be feasible, will achieve a target normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, will decrease tidal volumes toward the target 6 mL/kg predicted body weight, and will improve outcomes.