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The investigators will compare a dyadic intervention (Recovering Together) with an attention placebo educational control in dyads of patients with acute neurological illnesses and their caregivers at risk for chronic emotional distress. The primary aim of this study is to determine the feasibility, credibility, and satisfaction with Recovering Together. The second aim is to show proof of concept for sustained improvement in emotional distress, post traumatic stress (PTS), resiliency and interpersonal communication outcomes in patients and caregivers.
Many survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI) suffer from decreased balance and increased risks of falls. Previous studies indicate that balance training improves balance, reduces falls, and increases walking speed and balance confidence. The purpose of this study is to determine if a multidimensional balance training based on the FallProof(TM) approach achieves better improvements in balance and walking performance than the current practice . Participants will be assigned to: 1)a task-oriented circuit training balance class (current practice), or 2) balance training class based on the FallProof(TM) approach. Standardized tests will determine if participating in balance training helps improve balance, walking speed and balance confidence.
The purpose of this single-center, prospective, randomized (1:1), double-blind, sham-controlled parallel-arm pilot study is to provide initial evidence of use of the noninvasive vagus nerve stimulator for treatment in patients recovering from concussion and moderate traumatic brain injury to improve clinical recovery. The study compares the safety and effectiveness of an active gammaCore treatment against a sham treatment.
Optic Nerve Ultrasound (ONUS) is a promising non-invasive tool for the detection of raised Intracranial Pressure (ICP). Variability in the optimal Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter (ONSD) threshold corresponding to elevated ICP in multiple studies limits the value of ONUS in clinical practice. The investigators goal is to develop and validate an automated image analysis algorithm for standardization of ONSD measurement from ultrasound videos. Patients with acute brain injury requiring invasive ICP monitoring will undergo bedside ONUS, with blinded ONSD measurement by an expert investigator. The image analysis algorithm will then be used to measure ONSD and accuracy determined compared to the "reference standard" expert measurement.
There are concerns that the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for the treatment of pulmonary complications in patients with brain injury may potentially elevate intracranial pressure (ICP), and deteriorate neurological status. It is suggested that both respiratory system compliance and ventricular compliance would contribute to the elevation of ICP when PEEP increases. In theory, PEEP may cause elevation of ICP by increasing intrathoracic pressure and diminish venous return. However, the transmission of PEEP into thoracic cavity depends on the properties of the lung and chest wall. Experimental study showed that when chest wall compliance is low, PEEP can significantly increases intrathoracic pressure; whereas low lung compliance can minimize airway pressure transmission. It is generally recognized that the lung compliance decreases in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients due to extensive alveolar collapse. However, it has been report that the elastance ratio (the ratio between elastance of the chest wall and the respiratory system, where elastance is the reciprocal of compliance) may vary from 0.2 to 0.8. Therefore, it is important to distinguish the compliance of the chest wall and the lung when investigating the effect of PEEP on ICP. Because intrathoracic pressure (pleural pressure) is difficult to measure in clinical situations, esophageal pressure (Pes) is considered as a surrogate of intrathoracic pressure. In the present study, the investigators determine the effect of PEEP on intrathoracic pressure and ICP by Pes measurement.
Detecting preserved consciousness in brain-injured patients by traditional clinical means requires presence of motor function. Otherwise, patients may be erroneously classified as being in a vegetative state. In order to circumvent the need for motor function, paradigms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been developed. According to a recent meta-analysis, 15% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of vegetative state can follow commands by performing mental imaginary tasks, strongly suggesting they are indeed conscious. This is of utmost importance for prognosis, treatment, and resource allocation. However, consciousness paradigms are usually employed in rehabilitation medicine. Therefore, opportunities to optimize patient outcome at an early stage may be lost. As a novel approach, the CONsciousness in NEurocritical Care cohorT study using fMRI and EEG (CONNECT-ME) will import the full range of consciousness paradigms into neurocritical care. The investigators aim to assess patients with acute brain injury for preserved consciousness by serial multimodal evaluations using active, passive and resting state fMRI- and EEG-based paradigms. A prospective longitudinal database and a biobank for genomic and metabolomic research will be established. This approach will add essential clinical information, including detection of preserved consciousness in patients previously thought of as unconscious. Due to its complexity, this project is divided into nine work packages. Eventually, the investigators will have established a clinical service for the systematic assessment of covert consciousness, as well as an interdisciplinary research group dedicated to the neuronal mechanisms by which consciousness recovers after acute brain injury.
This will be an open, prospective pilot study with pharmacological analysis. This study is designed to assess the efficacity and safety of dexmedetomidine-based sedation in two subgroups of neurocritically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Those with or at risk for intracranial hypertension requiring deep sedation and those requiring a light to moderate sedation for early neurological evaluation. The main objective is to assess the feasability of dexmedetomidine infusion in terms of efficacy and safety (especially cardiovascular tolerance) in brain-injured patients admitted to intensive care unit and requiring sedation and mechanical ventilation for a predictable duration greater than or equal to 48 hours. Secondary objectives include the study of hemodynamic parameters evolution, dose-response relationship, blood (+/- cerebrospinal fluid) drug concentration, opioates and co-hypnotic consumption.
This is a prospective pilot study evaluating the safety and feasibility of implementing the ketogenic diet in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with acute brain injury such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Animal studies suggest that in the aftermath of injury the brain's ability to use glucose as a fuel is impaired. The ketogenic diet is a high fat, low carbohydrate diet which is already used in clinical practice for the treatment of medication resistant epilepsy and is intended to switch the body over to burning fat rather than carbohydrates for fuel. In lieu of their standard tube-feeds, 5-10 children admitted to the PICU with these diagnoses will receive low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic feeds for 2 weeks. We hypothesize that ketones will be detectable through serum tests and MRI spectroscopy studies of the brain within several days of diet initiation, and that there will be a low incidence of side effects and adverse events, Measures of interest will include the incidence of kidney stones, excessive acidosis and excessive hypoglycemia. The feasibility of implementing this protocol for a larger efficacy trial will be assessed through serial measurements of blood glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (a type of ketone body), and serum bicarbonate levels. In addition, levels of ketone bodies within the brain will be measured through MRI spectroscopy sequence which will be acquired at the same time as a follow-up MRI brain study ordered for clinical purposes.
This proposal aims to provide some objective, non-invasively achieved, physiologically relevant data in order to provide some rational basis for decision-making for transfusion in sTBI. Specifically this proposal is an observational study of transfusion and brain tissue saturation in sTBI patients. The results will illustrate to what degree brain tissue oxygenation is critically dependent on the degree of anemia in sTBI and help in the decision of whether transfusion might be helpful.
The aim of the study assesses static and dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation daily over one week in patients with traumatic brain injury or intracranial hemorrhage to quantify the temporal profile of the autoregulatory status.