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This study will monitor the symptoms of patients who have received an intervention on the psychiatric inpatient unit at Stanford hospital up to 6 months after they have received the intervention. Additionally, the acceptability and feasibility of interventions will be assessed using clinician and patient questionnaires.
The objective of this project is to examine the clinical effectiveness of a mindfulness intervention on reducing depressive symptoms among socio-economically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority adults and explore factors related to implementation in a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). This research will be used to develop a generalizable model for delivery of streamlined mental health interventions in community based settings that will be broadly disseminated and scalable to other populations. Black and Hispanic adults are more likely than those who are White to receive depression treatment in primary care, where antidepressants are the most commonly offered treatment. However, Black and Hispanic adults are less likely than Whites to find antidepressants acceptable. A mindfulness depression intervention provided within primary care may be more accessible and acceptable for low-income, racial/ethnic minority individuals, a severely underserved population. The investigators will conduct a randomized controlled trial to test the clinical effectiveness of a mindfulness intervention (M-Body) on reducing depressive symptoms, compared to usual care, among low-income racial/ethnic minority adults in a FQHC. The M-Body intervention is based on Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction and has been tailored for the FQHC setting and patient population. Adults (N=330) with depressive symptoms will be recruited from a FQHC in the Chicago, IL area that serves majority racial/ethnic minority individuals (90%) living at or below the poverty line (74%). Half of the patients will be randomized to the M-Body intervention arm where they will receive 8-weeks of mindfulness training led by FQHC staff and the other half will be randomized to usual care. Information on factors relevant to implementation of the intervention in the FQHC will be obtained by convening a series of workgroups and individual interviews with FQHC staff, executive leadership and community stakeholders. Specific Aims: 1) Determine the effectiveness of M-Body on reducing depressive symptoms compared to enhanced usual care for racial/ethnic minority adults in a FQHC; 2) Explore potential mediators (stress related biomarkers, mindfulness) and moderators (age, personal, social, environmental stressors) of the intervention's effect; 3) Conduct a broad assessment of organizational and individual agency factors related to preparation and implementation of the M-Body intervention in a FQHC using a mixed methods approach.
During the past three decades, researchers have paid particular attention to the study of olfactory disorders in depression. Recent studies have shown that depression is characterized by a change in olfactory and emotional perception resulting in a decrease of the perception of positive stimuli (odors and facial expressions) and an increase in perception of negative stimuli (odors). Moreover, it has also been shown in healthy subjects that the presence of minor depressive symptoms leads to a decreasing of olfactory sensitivity. However, odor discrimination was not impaired in these subjects. This observation suggest the presence of a change in "targeted" olfactory perception in people with depressive symptoms without reporting major depression. In addition, studies in subjects with olfactory disorders (following respiratory tract infections or following Parkinson's disease) have shown an improvement in olfactory function after daily training with odors during 12 weeks. From all these observations, the hypothesis is that an olfactory training could improve the overall olfactory functioning and the emotional perception of the subjects presenting minor depressive symptoms and of the depressed patients.
To develop a viable and sustainable best practice model to promote elderly mental wellness and prevent elderly depression for Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust has initiated a pilot holistic support project entitled "JC JoyAge: Holistic Support Project for Elderly Mental Wellness". Commenced in October 2016, this 3-year project will deliver six programmes: (1) social services staff training; (2) peer supporters certificate training; (3) outreach and engagement activities for at-risk older adults; (4) standardized prevention and early intervention service; (5) community education programmes; and (6) public awareness and public education activities in four pilot districts in Hong Kong, namely Kwun Tong, Sham Shui Po, Kwai Chung, and Tseung Kwan O. The project aims specifically to: 1. Evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative stepped care and peer support programme in engaging older people at-risk of or with depression; 2. Evaluate the efficacy of the programme in reducing symptoms/risks and promoting wellbeing in older people at-risk of or with depression; 3. Investigate the impact of the programme on care resources utilization in these older adults.
Depression and chronic medical conditions are common in older adults. Qigong is increasingly documented to have anti-depressive effects for older adults. Nevertheless, the scientific concepts behind qigong remain a mystery. To fill the knowledge gap, the neurobiological mechanism of the effects of qigong was explored. In addition, the benefits of qigong on subjective well-being, functional independence, sleep quality, mobility, and muscle strength were also tested. After random assignment, intervention group (n = 14) went through individual qigong exercise twice a week and for 12 weeks,whereas control group (n = 16) was involved in cognitive training activities with mobilization elements. The psychosocial, physical, and neurobiological outcomes of the two groups were compared.
Qigong exercise is beneficial for older adults with co-occurring chronic physical illness and depression in terms of psychological and physical outcomes. However, the effects on functional independence, sleep quality, and mobility of depressive older adults remain unclear. It is also important to replicate its benefits for subjective well-being and muscle strength. A randomized clinical trial was conducted among older adults who were aged 60 or above and with chronic medical conditions for one year. After random assignment, intervention group (n = 25) went through qigong exercise twice a week and for 12 weeks,whereas control group (n = 22) was involved in cognitive training activities with mobilization elements. The psychosocial and physical outcomes of the two groups were compared.
The purpose of this study is to test the usefulness of a family-based program for African American parents/primary caregivers with newly diagnosed solid tumor cancer and their adolescent children. The program is designed to promote family communication reduce and depressive symptoms for adolescence.
1. To use a SMART design to evaluate which of four sequences of New Hope (NH), Elders Resilience (ER) and Case Management (CM) have the greater effects on immediate and longer-term suicidal ideation (primary outcome) and resilience (secondary outcome) among American Indian (AI) adolescents ages 10-24 identified at risk for suicide. Hypotheses: i. New Hope vs. CM alone will significantly reduce participant suicidal ideation. ii. Elders Resilience vs. CM alone will significantly improve participant resilience. iii. New Hope followed by Elders Resilience will have the strongest effects on suicidal ideation and resilience. iv. CM alone will have the weakest effects of all combinations. Secondary Aims: 2. To examine mediators and moderators of treatment effectiveness and sequencing in order to determine which types and sequence of interventions is best suited for which youth. 3. To assess the acceptability, feasibility and capacity for sustainability of the Hub's key intervention components (Surveillance/Case Management, New Hope and Elders' Resilience) from the perspective of multiple stakeholders as they are implemented across different tribes.
Background Impairing emotional and behavioural problems are common in children and adolescents and mark a three-fold increased risk of mental disorder in young adulthood. Evidence-based psychological interventions are recommended for indicated prevention and first-line treatment, but access to treatment is often limited. A new, modular cognitive and behavioural therapy program Mind My Mind (MMM) comprising evidence-based interventions for children with emotional and behavioral problems was designed to be delivered by educational psychologists in the Danish municipalities. A feasibility RCT (NCT03448809), demonstrated that the study design was acceptable among children, parents, and therapists, and it provided data to estimate the sample size needed for the definitive RCT. The investigators test the hypothesis that the parent-reported impact of mental health problems will be significantly lower for children in the MMM group as compared with children in the TAU group after the 18-week intervention period (primary hypothesis), and after follow-up at week 26 (first secondary hypothesis). Aim To investigate the effects and cost-effectiveness of MMM compared with TAU for children and adolescents with impairing anxiety, depressive symptoms and/or behavioral problems. Both beneficial and harmful effects are evaluated. Methods The study compares the new modular MMM with TAU for children aged 6-16 years with anxiety, depressive symptoms or behavioral problems impacting on their daily and social life. The trial is conducted in four Danish municipalities in the period from September 2017 to April 2019. Participants are children with indicated needs. The parents sign up the child for assessment in the Pedagogical Psychological Services in the Municipalities. The assessment includes web-based standardized questionnaires for child and parent: 1) the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), 2) Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, 3) Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and 4) family, social and school functioning. The questionnaires are supplemented with a clinical psychopathological interview by a trained psychologist. The investigators exclude children with 1) low levels of problems and no indicated needs, or 2) high levels of problems and need of referral to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 412 children will be included and randomized (1:1) to MMM versus TAU. MMM is supported by a central organization, who is responsible for the education and weekly supervision of the therapists, and the web-based data collection and feedback of data in real time to therapists and researchers. All outcomes are self-, parent- and teacher-reported scores on standardized questionnaires administered at baseline, week 18 and week 26. At entry, the child and the parents own description of the Top-problem is recorded and scored on a 10-point likert scale. The Top-problem and impact of problem is scored by parent and child every second week during the intervention period, and the progress is monitored by the therapists in the MMM group. Information on costs is gathered through administrative registers and questionnaires at baseline, week 18, and week 26. Primary objectives and outcome measures This primary outcome is measured with the parent-reported SDQ impact-scale. The minimum relevant difference in impact of mental health problems was set at 1.0 corresponding to a change from severe to moderate, or from moderate to little-or-no impact in one of five domains of child's life: distress, home-life, friendships, classroom learning and leisure activities. Secondary objectives and outcomes measures The key secondary hypotheses are that the children in the MMM group will show significantly lower levels of parent-reported anxiety, depressive symptoms, functional impairment, Top-problems and behavioural problems, and better school attendance and quality-of-life as compared with the children in the TAU group at week 18. All other outcomes are explored at week 18 and 26, including the primary and secondary measures of potential harm: 1) youths with severe and increased levels of self-reported suicidality, hopelessness and/or negative self-evaluation, and 2) youths with poor quality of life in relation to family, free time and friends. Statistical analyses All analyses will be intention-to-treat with two-sided significance tests. The investigators will use mixed models with repeated measures for continuous outcomes and generalized linear mixed model for binary and non-normally distributed outcomes. For the key secondary outcomes, the investigators will use the strategy of hierarchical testing allowing us to preserve the level of significance, α=0.05, as long as the null hypotheses are rejected. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated to analyze cost-effectiveness. Perspectives The results will guide policy makers in deciding whether to implement modular CBT-programs like the MMM.
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide and a risk factor for other diseases. While women are at elevated risk for depression in general, the menopause transition is a particularly vulnerable time for many women, with the risk for depression increasing 2-4 fold. The objective of this research study is to determine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), an 8-week structured intervention involving meditation and yoga, has any beneficial mood effects for women undergoing this vulnerable time.