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To evaluate the effects of local intravesical B.C.G and gemcitabine on semen quality and testicular volume.
This study investigates the effect of repetitive cycles of a Fasting Mimicking Diet (3x5 days in six months) on sperm quality in men
Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is a global pandemics which affects many organs and systems with a range of morbidities and high mortality rates. There are a number of studies revealed that COVID-19 may affect the testes and male genital tract which may in turn disrupt the gonadal functions.The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on semen parameters and sex-related hormone levels.
Cancer is a public health problem. In recent years, oncology has been revolutionized with the advent of new treatments for different tumor models, mainly immunotherapy directed against cell cycle control points. Numerous inhibitory pathways are incorporated into the immune system to maintain tolerance and homeostasis, and these are collectively known as immunological checkpoints. The main function of immunological checkpoints is to protect tissues from damage when the immune system is responding to pathogens and maintain tolerance to self antigens (ie, prevent autoimmunity). This is mainly achieved by down-regulation of T cell activation or effector functions. There is increasing evidence to show that a primary mechanism by which tumors evade the immune system is through the participation of immunological checkpoints. This has stimulated the development of many novel agents that modulate immunological checkpoints or other costimulatory receptors. CTLA-4 is the first receptor of the checkpoint that is successfully selected as immunotherapy. Ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, was the first immunological checkpoint inhibitor to receive FDA approval for the treatment of advanced melanoma. On the other hand, PD-1 is another receptor for the immune control point, and its ligands, the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2, also resulted in important therapeutic advances in cancer immunotherapy. Unlike CTLA-4, PD-1 is widely expressed and can be found in, in addition to T cells, in B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The main function of PD-1 is to limit the activity of T cells in peripheral tissues during an inflammatory immune response. The tumors can exploit this control point, expressing the ligand PD-L1 and generating that the cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the NK cells are anergic and incapable of killing. This up-regulation mechanism of PD-L1 is known in tumors such as melanoma, lung and ovary. Several monoclonal antibodies directed to PD-1 have already received approvals for their clinical use as Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab.
The investigators plan to retrospectively analyze clinical data from 14,189 fresh ICSI cycles in Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya from January 2016 to December 2017.The investigators will regard total progressive sperm number of 2 x 10^6 after pretreatment as the boundary value, and will divide total progressive sperm number of 2 x 10^6 after pretreatment into 2 x 10^6 or higher and < 2 x 10^6 groups, and will further divide < 2 x 10^6 group into: = 0, (0,10^6], (10^6, 2 x 10^6) three groups. Propensity score matching will be used to balance the baseline data between four groups. The matching variables are age, female BMI, AFC, AMH and ICSI.