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Septic shock is a syndrome characterized by tissue hypoperfusion and hypotension secondary to an uncontrolled infection. It is a frequent cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and has an associated mortality around 40%. Around 50 % of septic shock patients exhibit early acute kidney injury and 30 to 40% will require renal replacement therapy. After initial fluid resuscitation most of the patients with septic shock become hyperdynamic but still require norepinephrine (NE) to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) above 65 mmHg. The optimal perfusion pressure may vary, specially in previously hypertensive patients as they may have a shift to the right in their kidney auto-regulatory curve. In a previous study in patients with chronic hypertension and septic shock, increasing MAP from 65 mmHg to 85 mmHg with NE was associated with improved renal function. However, the incidence of tachyarrhythmias increased, associated to the higher NE doses required, which has raised some concerns about the safety of this strategy. In this setting, the addition of vasopressin (AVP), a drug used as a vasopressor but with cathecholamine independent mechanisms, may allow to prevent this side effect by decreasing NE dose requirements. Low doses of AVP appear to be safe and when combined with NE in septic shock patients, it resulted in increased creatinine clearance and decreased use of renal replacement therapy, compared to NE alone. Theoretically, AVP can improve glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, the addition of AVP to NE in previously hypertensive septic shock patients should be a reasonable strategy to improve organ perfusion. Furthermore, AVP could be an important step towards decatecholaminization in the management of septic shock patients. However, its effect on cardiac performance and stroke volume when targeting high MAP is unclear.
Prolonged, high intensity work in a hot environment results in significant strain on the body, known as heat strain. Heat strain in hot occupational settings such as agriculture, fire suppression, and military work can lead to ~20% of workers exceeding the glomerular filtration rate indicated thresholds for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, it is unclear whether these individuals truly experienced AKI or if these were normal, healthy physiologic responses. To better determine if AKI occurs in the staggering number of workers previously reported, AKI biomarkers are needed in addition to kidney function markers (e.g., glomerular filtration rate) to characterize this response. The product of urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) is a promising Food and Drug Administration approved biomarker indicating risk of AKI and is currently used in hospitalized individuals. The usefulness of this biomarker in determining AKI in healthy individuals during heat strain is now beginning to be understood. Consecutive days of heat strain can result in repeated AKI, which is hypothesized to lead to chronic kidney disease. There is an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes occurring in workers who undergo repeated days heat strain, including approximately 15% of outdoor workers in Central America. Of the few studies that investigated consecutive days of work in the heat, we demonstrated that participants exceed the glomerular filtration rate indicated threshold for AKI during consecutive days of heat strain. This project will determine whether [TIMP-2 x IGFBP7] increases during occupational relevant heat exposures in a healthy, active population. Additionally, this project will compare the impact of repeated exposures to a hot environment on risk of AKI.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) or renal impairment is an established complication of cardiac surgery occurring with an incidence up to 30%, To date, no agent has conferred renal protection. Considerable interest has developed in the potential for Nacetylcysteine (NAC) to exert a renoprotective effect in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Due to the beneficial effect of NAC on contrast nephropathy and its reported anti-inflammatory effects.
Aimed to determine whether preoperative biomarkers (Mg, Hgb, CRP, ProBNP) would be helpful in the early diagnosis of CSA-AKI (cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury) in patients undergoing open heart surgery.
Studying the dynamics of red blood cell lysis, pfH, protective proteins and organ injury, limits will be set for safe levels of pfH following the use of CPB. These results will be compared to existing laboratory-based methods for determining red blood cell damage to predict CPB assist device safety. Further, results from the studies described in this proposal will help develop therapeutic strategies to benefit patients by early detection of pfH and clearance protein levels that occur during CPB.
This prospective observational study evaluates the association of peri-procedural changes in renal regional oxygen saturation and post-procedural acute kidney injury in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
The purposes of this study is 1. To establish the validity of CEUS to measure renal perfusion by comparing it against ASL-MRI in young and older healthy volunteers, and generate a normative dataset of CEUS measures of renal perfusion. 2. Establish proof of principle for the use of CEUS to measure renal perfusion in the acute phase of AKI, demonstrating its feasibility and potential clinical utility. We will do this by performing daily CEUS measurements for up to five days in a cohort of people with AKI stage 3, commencing as close to onset. of AKI as possible, correlating with clinical data and following outcomes until 90 days.
Our aim is to test whether short term perioperative administration of oral spironolactone could reduce incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiac surgical patients.
Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration (CVVH) can eliminate metabolic products effectively and replace renal function partly. It is widely used in intensive care units (ICUs), especially for patients with acute kidney injury/failure in an unstable hemodynamic status. Lactate is a molecule smaller than glucose, which can pass through filtration membrane freely in CVVH. Therefore, the blood lactate concentrations would no longer reflect tissue oxygenation status in patients with unstable hemodynamic status. However, there is no prospective study evaluated the effect of CVVH on lactate removal in critically ill patients. The influence of different dose of CVVH on lactate elimination is not clear in patients with different level of serum lactate. Our study aimed to find out how the dose of CVVH effects on lactate clearance, and then re-estimate the prognostic value of lactate in critically ill patients with CVVH.
Early goal directed therapy during 6 hours after occurence of the early phase of acute kidney injury