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This study explores the influence of the food matrix of seaweed-containing food products on iodine bioavailability. The investigation will ascertain whether iodine bioavailability (as a percentage of the dose ingested that is excreted in urine) is comparable between seaweed sheets, seaweed powder (in capsules), pizza fortified with powdered seaweed, and potassium iodide supplements.
This study is a randomized crossover trial, lasting 12 days in total, which will assess the difference in iodine bioavailability (as a percentage of iodine consumed that is excreted in urine) from three iodine-rich foods; semi-skimmed milk, white fish, and dried seaweed sheets. Each of the three foods will provide approximately 140µg of iodine, and iodine excretion will be monitored for 36 hours following food ingestion via collection and analysis of urine.
Iodine deficiency remains a global problem impairing health and development in affected populations. Although there has been remarkable global progress against iodine deficiency, mild and moderate iodine deficiency remain common globally, including European countries. Besides salt, milk and dairy products are important iodine sources in many industrialized countries, with varying contributions depending on the milk iodine concentration and the amount of milk and dairy consumed. Iodine absorption in humans depends on the iodine species and possibly on the iodine status of the person. Very little data is available on iodine absorption or bioavailability from different dietary sources including milk. Inorganic iodide is thought to be absorbed almost completely (>90%). In contrast, only about two-thirds of some forms of organically-bound iodine are absorbed. The absorption of iodine from milk has not been quantified in humans. In this balance study, the investigators want to quantify the absorption of iodine in cow's milk in male and female adults and compare with the bioavailability from an iodine water solution (potassium iodide). The results of this study will inform on the bioavailability rate of iodine from cow's milk. Knowing the actual iodine bioavailability from milk is critical because milk and dairy products are major iodine sources in many industrialized countries. The primary objective of this randomized, cross-over design study is to assess iodine bioavailability (measured using excretion in urine) from whole cow's milk delivering an iodine level of about 600 µg/L and compare them with a control iodine solution. The investigators will test three drinks within one subject: 1) a milk with an intrinsic iodine concentration of about 600 µg/L; 2) a milk with a naturally low iodine concentration and an added amount of potassium iodide (extrinsic iodine in milk matrix) to reach a level of about 600 µg/L (adapted to the intrinsic concentration in 1)); and 3) control iodine solution (extrinsic iodine in water matrix) with the same iodine concentration.