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Cefazolin is given routinely pre and intraoperatively for patients undergoing spinal surgery to reduce the rate of infection. Intra-wound admission of Vancomycin powder has been suggested to reduce wound infection rates. Therefore, this study aims to compare the rate of wound-related complications between patients receiving standard treatment compared to patients receiving an addition of topical Vancomycin and to identify the optimal Vancomycin dosage. All groups will receive the recommended regimen of routine IV antibiotic prophylaxis.
This study is based on the hypothesis that the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in newborns and children are different from adults. We aim to study the population pharmacokinetics of newborns and children receiving the fluconazole for treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we will detect fluconazole concentration in plasma by using residual blood samples of blood gas analysis and other clinical tests and employ computers for constructing population pharmacokinetic models. In addition, we also want to correlate use of fluconazole with treatment effectiveness and incidence of adverse effects in newborns and children. This novel knowledge will allow better and more rational approaches to the treatment of infectious diseases in newborns and children. It will also set the foundation for further studies to improve fluconazole therapies for newborns and children.
Mechanical ventilation is the continuation of respiratory function from outside by means of special devices until adequate oxygenation is provided by the patient's own respiratory functions in patients whose oxygenation is not sufficient for any reason. . Mechanical ventilation support is provided to patients with respiratory distress with a medical device called an endotracheal tube (ET) inserted through the mouth or nose. Endotracheal intubation is the most common access route for invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in critical care areas such as the intensive care unit. As in the intensive care unit, as the tube insertion time increases, it becomes very important to fix the tube so that it does not come out. One of the most important and most common complications after ET placement is unplanned extubation. Correct tube detection is the best way to prevent unplanned extubation. In current clinical practice, there are several methods for securing ETs, including adhesive or cloth tapes and endotracheal tube attachment devices. Although there are many types of endotracheal tube holders today, the use of bandages or tapes is still the most commonly used method. Different endotracheal tube fixation techniques used have different advantages and complications. Skin injury and allergy due to adhesive tapes, which are frequently used in the detection of ET, are complications that can be seen in every patient and age group. Endotracheal tube fixation methods may increase the risk of infection due to the material from which they are produced.We planned this study to determine whether the endotracheal tube fixation tie or the gauze fixation from my tube fixation materials contains pathogens, and if so, the pathogen hosting rates.
Prospective, Randomized, Double Blinded Trial Comparing Clinical, Radiological and Laboratory Outcomes in prevention of infection after Total Knee Arthroplasty With or Without Vancomycin.
Tumor resection and prosthetic replacement have become the treatments of choice for malignant bone tumors. Infections are the main cause of failure of limb salvage surgeries. Therefore, treatment of infections around prostheses after limb salvage is important, but is also challenging. Our research team designed a "domino" sequential treatment plan to treat postoperative infections around tumor prostheses and evaluated its efficacy.
Patients undergo ERCP procedure (Endoscopic procedure with the help of x-rays) for a variety of reasons such as common bile duct (CBD)stones, bile duct obstruction secondary to bile duct narrowing (Strictures) and for bile leak. The incidence of infection post-ERCP is around one in 200. There are some group of patients where this risk is significantly increased. In this high risk group, the risk increases from 1 in 75 to in some diseases 1 in 15 (Described in PIS). There are some reports that some of the infection may be contributed by contamination of bacteria in the scope. This happens even after diligently sterilizing the scope. A multi-centre study reported that the risk of contamination is as high as 39% but what we do not know is how many resulted in bacterial infection. The investigators do not know what percentage of infection is secondary to the above. The new single use duodenoscope (aScope, Ambu Ltd) has been introduced in to the market to minimise the risk of post ERCP infection. It is CE marked but the evidence for performance of the aScope is limited. The investigators want to assess the performance of the scope simultaneously in multiple different hospitals. In addition, the investigators also want to assess the cost consequence to the NHS for using the above scope. Hence, the investigators want to assess the performance of the scope in the high risk groups for infection.
Background: CGD is caused by a gene mutation. For people with CGD, their cells cannot kill germs well, so they can get frequent or life-threatening infections. Researchers want to see if a new procedure can help a person s cells kill germs for a short time. It uses messenger RNA (mRNA) to deliver correct instructions for the gene mutation to the cells. Objective: To test a procedure in which mRNA is added to a person s blood cells. Eligibility: Males aged 18-75 with CGD with a mutation in the gene that makes the protein gp91phox. Design: Participants will be screened with: Medical history Physical exam Blood and urine tests Swab to test for strep throat Some screening tests will be repeated during the study. Participants will be admitted to the NIH Clinical Center hospital for at least 7 days. They will have apheresis. For this, a medicine is injected under their skin to prepare their white blood cells for collection. An IV line is placed into an arm vein. Blood goes through the IV line into a machine that divides whole blood into red blood cells, plasma, and white blood cells. The white blood cells are removed, and the rest of the blood is returned to the participant through an IV line in their other arm. The next day, they will get their mRNA-corrected cells via IV. They will be monitored for 3 more days. After discharge, participants will keep a symptom diary. They will be contacted weekly for one month, and then once a month. They will have a follow-up visit 3 months after the infusion.
The use of synthetic mesh to repair infected defects of the abdominal wall remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes of using PVDF mesh to treat infected abdominal wall defects in the elective setting.
Sepsis is a life-threatening dysregulated immune response to infection associated with multi-organ failure and a high mortality rate.While researchers have focused mainly on acute sepsis, post-sepsis care of survivors has long been neglected despite the observation that many sepsis survivors suffer from debilitating post-sepsis syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by frequent hospital readmissions and increased mortality due to persistent immune dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairment, causing poor quality of life and a substantial burden on the healthcare system. Disconcertingly, the number of sepsis survivors at risk for hospital readmission continues to rise.7 Of the post-sepsis symptoms, post-sepsis immunosuppression is perhaps the most clinically important. While sepsis presents as an initial phase of hyperinflammation (a "cytokine storm"), it is followed by an immunosuppressive phase that is now understood to last weeks to months and predisposes survivors to lethal secondary infections and sepsis recurrence. A third of deaths eight years post-sepsis are caused by recurrent sepsis.We hypothesize that changes in the transcriptome and DNA methylome in immune cells of survivors might be the underlying driver for prolonged immunosuppression, and may also be correlated with long-term morbidity and mortality post-sepsis, as well as other symptoms of post-sepsis syndrome including PTSD and cardiovascular disease.
This is a retrospective observational study drawing on data from the Brigham and Women's Home Hospital database. Sociodemographic and clinic data from a training cohort were used to train a machine learning algorithm to predict patient deterioration throughout a patient's admission. This algorithm was then validated in a validation cohort.