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The main objective is to study the effect of deep propioceptive stimulation with a heavy blanket for 2 weeks compared with a placebo blanket on sleep quality and behavior in patients with PWS
This is a single-center phase 2a open-label study to assess the efficacy and safety of a dose of psilocybin in subjects with hyperphagia resulting in overeating during both dosing sessions. Subjects will undergo screening, preparation therapy sessions, dosing, integration therapy sessions, and follow-up for 24 weeks following the second of 2 doses. The total participation in the study will be up to 7 months. The study will assess change from baseline in body mass index (BMI). Safety will be assessed during dosing sessions and over a 24 week follow-up period.
This study evaluates the associations between baseline decision-making processes, engagement in problematic dietary practices, and post-intervention weight loss outcomes among adolescents. Results from the study will provide specific direction for what components should comprise future decision-making interventions for adolescents with overweight/obesity.
A significantly higher proportion of patients with rare diseases (RD) with intellectual disability (ID), present hyperphagia, overweight or obesity, compared to the general population. Prader-Willi syndrome is the only genetic obesity identified to date associated with hyperghrelinemia, while ghrelin levels are lower than in controls in other situations of obesity. The aim of the study is to find out whether the levels of ghrelin, which are abnormally high in PWS throughout life, are also high in these RD when people have hyperphagia and/or overweight.
This project evaluated the effects of a brief manualized mindful eating intervention as a treatment for overeating with individuals with overweight and obesity.
Even when they know it can improve health, many individuals with loss of control eating struggle when they are trying to make and sustain new health habits for weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. Impulsivity, characterized by lack of foresight and planning and excessive risk taking, and compulsivity, characterized by inability to break old habitual behaviors, may play a role in refractory obesity. The primary objective of this pilot study is to investigate the effect of a novel neuroplasticity based intervention, cognitive training coupled with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in individuals with obesity.
The obesity epidemic continues to be a major public health concern, with 38% of US adults and 17% of children obese. One factor that has been highlighted as a robust predictor of weight outcomes is the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food, or how rewarding one finds eating compared to alternative activities. An emerging body of literature has built upon the observed relationship between the RRV of food and weight by hypothesizing that the promotion of alternative reinforcers, or rewarding activities that could take the place of eating, offers a novel approach to decreasing excess energy intake and combatting obesity. We aim to integrate distinct bodies of literature and fill a gap in the evidence by testing whether parenting intervention messages delivered and practiced in the context of shared activities can decrease the RRV of food by making parent-child interactions more rewarding. The ultimate goal of this research is to demonstrate that such an intervention can increase children's motivation to interact with their parent instead of eating a favorite food, demonstrating the potential for positive parent-child interactions to become an alternative source of pleasure.
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common syndromic cause of obesity. Individuals with PWS characteristically experience excessive weight gain and severe hyperphagia with food compulsivity in early childhood, which often leads to the onset of obesity and metabolic complications. The pathogenesis of hyperphagia and progressive weight gain in PWS is far from being understood, and thus efficacious interventions are still under development. Emerging evidence indicates an important etiological contribution of dysbiotic gut microbiota in the hyperphagia, obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with PWS, implicating a potentially effective target for appetite control and alleviation of obesity in PWS. This study aims to evaluate whether dietary fibers can improve hyperphagia and metabolic profile in children with PWS, and further will determine if these improvements correlate with dietary-fiber-induced changes of the gut microbiota. Twenty children with PWS (age 5-17 years) will receive 3-week fiber or placebo treatment and 3-week alternate treatment with a 4-week washout period in between. A validated PWS-specific hyperphagia questionnaire will be used to assess the severity of hyperphagia in participants. Fasting blood and fecal samples will be collected for the analyses of appetite-related hormones, metabolic biomarkers, bacterial composition and gut metabolites. This study should provide potential new approaches for effective non-pharmacologic treatment of excessive weight gain and hyperphagia associated with PWS to improve overall health and quality of life in affected patients.
This study will examine the relationship between the rate and composition of mass gain during overfeeding plus resistance training, investigate the validity of multiple assessment methods for quantifying body composition changes during this period, and evaluate the effects of subject presentation on the interpretation of body composition changes.
Childhood obesity is a critical public health problem in the United States. One factor known to contribute to childhood obesity is excess consumption. Importantly, excess consumption related to weight gain is not necessarily driven by hunger. For example, environmental food cues stimulate brain reward regions and lead to overeating even after a child has eaten to satiety. This type of cued eating is associated with increased attention to food cues; the amount of time a child spends looking at food cues (e.g., food advertisements) is associated with increased caloric intake. However, individual susceptibility to environmental food cues remains unknown. It is proposed that the prevalent practice of media multi-tasking-simultaneously attending to multiple electronic media sources-increases attention to peripheral food cues in the environment and thereby plays an important role in the development of obesity. It is hypothesized that multi-tasking teaches children to engage in constant task switching that makes them more responsive to peripheral cues, many of which are potentially harmful (such as those that promote overeating). The overarching hypothesis is that media multi-tasking alters the attentional networks of the brain that control attention to environmental cues. High media multi-tasking children are therefore particularly susceptible to food cues, thereby leading to increased cued eating. It is also predicted that attention modification training can provide a protective effect against detrimental attentional processing caused multi-tasking, by increasing the proficiency of the attention networks. These hypotheses will be tested by assessing the pathway between media-multitasking, attention to food cues, and cued eating. It will also be examined whether it is possible to intervene on this pathway by piloting an at-home attention modification training intervention designed to reduce attention to food cues. It is our belief that this research will lead to the development of low-cost, scalable tools that can train attention networks so that children are less influenced by peripheral food cues, a known cause of overeating. For example, having children practice attention modification intervention tasks regularly (which could be accomplished through user-friendly computer games or cell phone/tablet apps) might offset the negative attentional effects of media multi-tasking.