There are about 3 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Greenland. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Around 10% has type 2 diabetes in Greenland, despite being a practically unknown disease only six decades ago. The drastic increase is of great concern, especially considering the transition that have occurred during the same decades going from a fisher-hunter lifestyle towards a more western lifestyle. Today, traditional marine foods are still increasingly being replaced by imported foods high in refined sugar (sucrose) and starch. Furthermore, recent studies discovered that the Greenlandic population harbors a different genetic architecture behind type 2 diabetes. Hence, obtaining more knowledge on interactions between lifestyle, genetics, and metabolism is therefore crucial in order to ameliorate the growing curve, or maybe even turn it around. Sucrose intolerance is in general rare; however, it is a common condition in Greenland and other Inuit populations. Here it is caused by a genetic variant in the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene, resulting in complete loss of enzyme function and hence an inability to digest sucrose and some of the glycosidic bonds in starch, both carbohydrates that are not part of the traditional Inuit diet. A recent, unpublished study found the variant to be associated with lower BMI, body fat percentage, bodyweight, and lipid levels independent of the lower intake of refined sugar. This might be explained by differences in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in the gut microbiota. The healthier phenotype was confirmed by a SI knockout mouse model, which furthermore interestingly indicated that the variant might alter food and taste preferences. It is anticipated that the drastic increase in type 2 diabetes in Greenland can be explained at least partly by the complex interaction between lifestyle and genetics. Therefore, the aim is to investigate if metabolic and microbial differences can explain the healthier phenotype of the homozygous carriers of the SI variant than wildtype individuals amd perform a 3-day cross-over dietary intervention using assigning subjects to a traditional Greenlandic diet and a Western diet. Moreover, the aim is to assess whether their food and taste preferences are different. The study will help us to understand the complex interactions between lifestyle, behavior, genetics, the microbiota and the host metabolism.
The study is a phd-study comprising several substudies focusing on cardiac arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation, among Greenlanders in Greenland. Some previous studies have indicated that the prevalence may be lower than among Westerners, however; studies have also indicated that atrial fibrillation is underdiagnosed. These studies aim to: - Estimate the prevalence of AF among Greenlanders in Greenland aged 55 years or older. - Estimate the prevalence of well-known risk factors among those found to have AF - Explore the symptoms of those affected by AF in Greenland - Among part of the participants: estimate the prevalence of autonomic neuropathy as this may cause arrhythmias.
The prevalence of otitis media among Greenlandic children is one of the highest in the world and twenty per cent of schoolchildren have impaired hearing in the frequencies for normal speech. Yet, there are no national guidelines to ensure prevention and treatment of recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion and impaired hearing in Greenlandic children. International studies from the developed part of the world have shown that otitis prone children may benefit from tubulation of the tympanic membrane. However, it is unknown if these results can be applied to Greenlandic children. This PhD project will conduct a randomised controlled trial comparing tubulation of the tympanic membrane, in Greenlandic children aged 9-36 months with recurrent acute otitis media and/or chronic otitis media with effusion, to conservative treatment. The children will be followed for two years. Outcome measures will include number of visits to health clinics, number of tympanic membrane perforations, number of episodes with acute otitis media according to medical records, Quality of life, measured by the validated questionnaires OM6 and Caregiver Impact Questionnaire, number of episodes where per oral or intravenous antibiotics have been administered according to medical records and serious adverse events The trial will be conducted in collaboration with the Greenlandic health authorities and Copenhagen Trial Unit. With this trial the investigators hope to decrease the number of episodes with acute otitis media, the number of Greenlandic children with chronic perforations of the tympanic membrane and hearing impairment and increase quality of life. The results will add important knowledge to the effect of ventilation tube treatment also in an international aspect. There are to date only less than a handful of high quality studies concerning this issue on an international basis. The study will be among the first addressing this problem among populations with high risk of otitis media and is also of interest to other indigenous populations and the developing part of the world.