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NCT ID: NCT05031676 Completed - Clinical trials for Maxillofacial Surgery

Opioid Free Anesthesia in Maxillofacial Surgery

Start date: February 15, 2019
Phase: N/A
Study type: Interventional

Opioid free anesthesia is a promising practice in anesthesia. Studies already carried out have compared OFA to an opioid or "opioid anesthesia" (OA) protocol without the use of antihyperalgesic in the OA protocol. Most of the studies currently available have been carried out in Europe, America and a few in Asia under conditions other than those available in precarious situations.That's why we decide to conduct a study to evaluate the effectiveness of an OFA protocol in maxillofacial surgery in Burkina Faso.

NCT ID: NCT05020847 Not yet recruiting - Clinical trials for Severe Acute Malnutrition

Effectiveness of Alternative Diets During the Stabilization Phase on Children With Complicated SAM

Start date: September 15, 2021
Phase: N/A
Study type: Interventional

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a life threatening condition and is defined by 1) a weight-for-height Z-score more than three standard deviations (SD) below the median based on the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards, 2) a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of less than 115 mm or 3) by the presence of nutritional edema. Signs such as edema, mucocutaneous changes, hepatomegaly, lethargy, anorexia, anemia, severe immune deficiency and rapid progression to mortality characterize a state commonly coined as "complicated SAM". Kwashiorkor is one of the forms of complicated SAM commonly distinguished by the unmistakable presence of bipedal edema. SAM results in high mortality rates of up to half a million child deaths annually. Undernourished children are at higher risk of mortality ranging from three times more risk among children with moderate malnutrition to 10-times in SAM children compared to well-nourished children. Children with complicated SAM require inpatient treatment in specialized centers. The "Rehabilitation and Nutritional Education Center" (CREN) is a specialized center in Burkina Faso receiving on average 10 SAM children per day. Recovery rate is lower than international standards; and adverse events and mortality remain strikingly high. Our main objective is to assess the underlying risk factors affecting the effectiveness of the nutritional therapeutic treatment protocol for complicated SAM children under 5 years of age who have been referred to the CREN, at the Centre Hôspitalier Universitaire Souro, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The specific objective is to assess the effectiveness of alternative dietary regimens during the stabilization phase on well-specified clinical and biochemical outcomes in children with complicated SAM. Dietary regimens differ by their carbohydrate profile and content, and by their different micronutrient composition including vitamin A, iron and zinc.

NCT ID: NCT05015257 Not yet recruiting - Clinical trials for Severe Acute Malnutrition

Effectiveness of Four Transition Dietary Regimens in the Hospital Management of Children With Kwashiorkor.

Start date: September 15, 2021
Phase: N/A
Study type: Interventional

In Burkina Faso the number of severely acute malnourished (SAM) children successfully treated has increased since the implementation of community-based management of acute malnutrition. SAM children with oedema have a higher risk of dying than SAM without oedema; they require inpatient care. Several theories have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of oedema in SAM, but its etiology remains unclear. Knowledge on the nutritional adequacy of therapeutic regimens in kwashiorkor is limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to use in the treatment of complicated SAM a therapeutic milk 'F75' in the stabilization phase; F75+ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) or F100 at the transition phase. Alternatively the local formulas (maize flour, milk powder, oil, sugar, mineral-vitamin complex CMV) can be used in case of shortage or intolerance. At the Nutritional Rehabilitation and Education Center of the University Hospital of Bobo Dioulasso it was found that some SAM children whose oedema resolved under F75 in the stabilization phase, re-developed oedema as they entered the transition phase with RUTF. RUTF has the same nutritional value as F100 but contains iron unlike F100 (<0.07 mg/100 mL). It was observed that RUTF in some cases may be associated with higher mortality, probably due to high iron content (10-14 mg/100 g), which may increase the risk of infections and the formation of free radicals, thereby increasing damage to the body's cells. Clinical trials evaluating the current guidelines for the treatment of SAM with oedema are scarce. A better understanding of the risk factors affecting the effectiveness of the nutritional therapeutic protocol for children with Kwashiorkor will be useful to improve their care. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the use of transition phase diets (Plumpy-Nut®+F75 or F100 or alternative F75+/- CMV+ Plumpy-Nut®) affect oedema resolving in Kwashiorkor children and to investigate the underlying factors for the relapse or non-responsiveness to the therapeutic treatment.

NCT ID: NCT05009823 Recruiting - Clinical trials for Severe Acute Malnutrition

Dietary Rehabilitation in Severely Acutely Malnourished Children

Start date: August 10, 2021
Phase:
Study type: Observational

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a life threatening condition and is defined by 1) a weight-for-height Z-score more than three standard deviations (SD) below the median based on the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards, 2) a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of less than 115 mm or 3) by the presence of nutritional edema. Signs such as edema, mucocutaneous changes, hepatomegaly, lethargy, anorexia, anemia, severe immune deficiency and rapid progression to mortality characterize a state commonly coined as "complicated SAM". Kwashiorkor is one of the forms of complicated SAM commonly distinguished by the unmistakable presence of bipedal edema. SAM results in high mortality rates of up to half a million child deaths annually. Undernourished children are at higher risk of mortality ranging from three-times more risk among children with moderate malnutrition to 10-times in SAM children compared to well-nourished children. Children with complicated SAM require inpatient treatment in specialized centers. The "Rehabilitation and Nutritional Education Center" (CREN) is a specialized center in Burkina Faso receiving on average 10 SAM children per day. Recovery rate is lower than international standards; and adverse events and mortality remain strikingly high. The main objective of this study is to assess the underlying risk factors affecting the effectiveness of the nutritional therapeutic treatment protocol for complicated SAM children under 5 years of age who have been referred to the CREN, at the Centre Hôspitalier Universitaire Souro, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The specific objective of this study is to better understand underlying risk factors associated with a lower recovery rate and high mortality in complicated SAM children referred to CREN for inpatient care. Risk factors associated with poor response to a standard dietary treatment at any phase will be assessed retrospectively.

NCT ID: NCT04969185 Recruiting - Malaria,Falciparum Clinical Trials

Association Between Drug Levels, Malaria, and Antimalarial Resistance in the Setting of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention

DRUMARS
Start date: August 16, 2021
Phase:
Study type: Observational

In areas of the Sahel sub-region of Africa with intense seasonal malaria transmission, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (SP+AQ) has become the standard-of-care for the prevention of malaria in children. Despite the scale-up of SMC across West Africa, the malaria burden remains high. Reasons for this are not well understood, however, it is hypothesized that children eligible for SMC who get malaria may be underdosed or may have not received SP+AQ. Moreover, there are major concerns that the continued use of the SMC strategy may increase selection of AQ and/or SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. The overall objective of this observational study are to understand the factors driving malaria among children eligible to receive SMC and whether circulating levels of sulfadoxine (SDX), pyrimethamine (PYR), and AQ are associated with risks of malaria and antimalarial drug resistance.

NCT ID: NCT04920838 Recruiting - Covid19 Clinical Trials

Early Treatment of Vulnerable Individuals With Non-Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection

COVERAGE-A
Start date: April 12, 2021
Phase: Phase 2/Phase 3
Study type: Interventional

Coverage Africa is a nested study in the large Anticov platform trial that aims to generate data on new early treatment strategies for mild/moderate COVID-19 patients in resource-limited-settings to reduce the number progressing to severe forms requiring hospitalization, thereby relieving the burden on health care systems and contributing to "flattening the curve" in contexts where none pharmaceutical intervention such as quarantine are difficult to implement in large urban settings. Treating early when the virus is still present might also limit transmission. Coverage Africa will be conducted in Guinea and Burkina Faso. The main objective is to conduct an open-label, multicenter, randomized, adaptive platform trial to test the safety and efficacy of several marketed products, including antiviral therapies versus control in mild/moderate of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in resource-limited-settings. The study aims to recruit 600 patients in both countries, one site in Guinea and two sites in Burkina Faso. The two assessed treatments are now the association of Ciclésonide / Nitazoxanide and the Telmisartan, compared with a control arm: paracetamol. The adaptive design trial will allow for the removal of drugs, or the addition of new study arms when new data becomes available. Data on the primary efficacy parameters and safety will be integrated with the primary endpoint based on an oxygen saturation percentage (SpO2) ≤ 93% or death within 14 days after randomization to treatment, including death for any reason. Study will run until December 2021. However, with the proposed adaptive design, the study could also be interrupted for success earlier than planned with the identification of a treatment that significantly reduces hospitalization rate as evidence by results from the primary endpoint.

NCT ID: NCT04912284 Completed - Covid19 Clinical Trials

Africa COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy

ACHES
Start date: May 5, 2021
Phase:
Study type: Observational

Vaccine hesitancy is defined by the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization as a 'delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services'. This varies in form and intensity based on when and where it occurs and what vaccine is involved. Several prophylactic vaccines against COVID-19 are currently available. As the world is beginning the roll-out the first approved vaccines, little is known about people's potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in most of the African countries. ACHES (African COVID -19Vaccine Hesitancy) is an observational study aimed at measuring COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in five west African countries and exploring causes behind the hesitancy with the main objective of informing guidelines for the proficient roll-out of the vaccines in the region.

NCT ID: NCT04885543 Completed - Covid19 Clinical Trials

COVID-19 STAndard of Care in Sub-Saharan Africa

COVISTA
Start date: March 1, 2020
Phase:
Study type: Observational

This study was conducted in three African countries on four COVID-19 care centers (CCCs). The CCCs were set up in collaboration with a medical NGO with long experience in recording and monitoring data for cohorts and clinical trials in emergency contexts. The data were recorded using the WHO COVID-19 rapid core case report form.

NCT ID: NCT04816461 Not yet recruiting - Malaria Clinical Trials

Boosting the Impact of SMC Through Simultaneous Screening and Treatment of Roommates

SMC-RST
Start date: July 2021
Phase: Phase 4
Study type: Interventional

Malaria represents a major public health concern in sub-Sahara Africa. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is one of the largest preventive measures. It consists to administer Amodiaquine+Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine to children aged 3-59 months on a monthly basis during the peak malaria transmission season. Despite its implementation, the burden of malaria is still very high in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. This raises questions about other hidden factors that can negatively affect the effectiveness of SMC intervention. Huge effort aiming at preventing human-vector contact were deployed such as the large-scale distribution of insecticide treated bed nets. Healthy humans are only infected via mosquitos if there are parasites reservoir around. Yet, there is no strategy aiming at protecting healthy humans from parasites reservoir. Under these circumstances, multiples humans sharing the same habitat could continually entertain the transmission cycle despite adequate existing measures. This would obviously jeopardize the expected impact of the SMC and the global effort to control the disease. In such context, we postulate that screening and treating malaria SMC-children's roommates could greatly improve the impact of SMC intervention and reduce malaria transmission in endemic settings. The goal of our study is to improve the impact of SMC intervention in terms of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Primary objectives include assessing whether SMC + children's roommates screening and treatment with Dihydro-artemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPPQ) is more effective than current routine implementation of SMC alone as well as the assessment of the tolerance and safety of AQSP and DHAPPQ. Secondary objectives include the assessment of the impact of the new strategy on the circulating parasite population in terms of selection of resistant strains and the assessment of determinants such as adherence and acceptability of the strategy. Methodology: The study will be carried out in the Nanoro health district catchment area in Burkina Faso. This will be a randomized superiority trial. The unit of randomization will be the household and all eligible children from a household will be allocated to the same study group to avoid confusion. Households with 3 - 59 months old children will be assigned to either (i) control group (SMC alone) or (ii) intervention (SMC+ roommates screening with standard HRP2-RDT and treatment if positive) or (iii) intervention (SMC+ roommates screening with highly sensitive RDT and treatment if positive). The sample size will be 789 isolated households per arm, i.e. around 1,578 children under CPS coverage and 2,630 roommates expected. They will be followed-up for 24 months to fully cover two consecutive malaria transmission seasons and then two SMC cycles. Children will be actively followed-up during the malaria transmission seasons while in the dry seasons the followed-up will be passive. Conclusion: The project will respond to a major public health concern by providing evidence of the efficacy of a new strategy which should necessarily complement the existing ones to achieve best impact in malaria control and elimination. The project is lifesaving and could be scaled up easily at country and regional level in case of promising results. In addition, if successful, the project will reinforce the capacity of the IRSS/CRUN by offering training opportunities to young researchers.

NCT ID: NCT04778813 Not yet recruiting - Malaria Clinical Trials

Evaluation of Three Artemisinin-based Combinations for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Childreen in Burkina Faso (CHIMIO2)

CHIMIO2
Start date: June 1, 2021
Phase: Phase 4
Study type: Interventional

Bakground In Burkina Faso, since the adoption of this new malaria treatment policy in 2005, several studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerance of ACTs have been carried out by different research teams at different sites according to an irregular chronology and according to different methods. Studies conducted in children 6 to 59 months with supervised use of ACTs indicate adequate clinical and parasitological response rates varying between 93% to 98% after correction to the PCR at day 28. With the introduction of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) by the Sulfadoxine-Pyriméthamime/amodiaquine combination in almost all health districts of Burkina Faso, ASAQ is no longer recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the areas covered by this intervention. In 2017, DHA-PPQ was added to the national treatment guidelines as a first-line treatment option. The therapeutic efficacy study carried out in 2017-2018 by the CNRFP showed a PCR-corrected treatment failure rate of over 10% with the AL combination. However, molecular analyzes have not shown the presence of mutations at position 580 on the PfK-13 gene which is associated with resistance to artemisinin derivatives. The combination artesunate-pyronaridine (As-Pyr) was recently added to the WHO Prequalified Medicines List and Essential Medicines List. In 2019, it received regulatory marketing authorization to be used as a treatment for malaria in Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso (along with the Niangoloko and Bobo Dioulasso centers) was one of the countries where clinical trials p ar the As-Pyr association were led. This combination has been found to be effective and well tolerated in Burkina Faso. The combinations of AL and DHA-PPQ were observed to be well tolerated in previous efficacy studies. The combinations DHA-PPQ and As-Pyr could potentially replace AL as first-line treatment in Burkina Faso if the results of these planned therapeutic efficacy studies continue to show a high rate of failures with AL. The herein study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of AL, DHA-PPQ and As-Pyr in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in three health districts in Burkina Faso, namely the health districts of Banfora, Nanoro and de Gourcy. This study will provide PNLP and the Ministry of Health with additional data and evidence on the safety and efficacy of these treatments against malaria in Burkina Faso. Primary objective The primary objective is to assess the clinical and parasitological efficacy of AL, DHA-PPQ and AS-Pyr in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in children aged 6 months to 12 years, corrected by PCR on day 28 (AL) or 42 (DHA-PPQ & AS-Pyr). Study settings The study will be conducted at the medical center (CMA of Niangoloko, the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro (URCN) and the medical center with surgical antenna (CMA) of Gourcy. Populations Febrile patients of both sexes aged between 6 months and 12 years with confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum mono-infestation who wellcome for an outpatient visit to the health facilities. Procedures It will be a multicenter, randomized, open-label, three-arm study involving three sites representing the three epidemiological facies of malaria in Burkina Faso. The three therapeutic combinations (AL, DHA-PPQ and As-Pyr) will be tested in different sites with different characteristics of transmission and resistance of malaria. Children with uncomplicated malaria who meet the criteria for inclusion in the study will be recruited and treated with the combination of AL or DHA-PPQ or As-Pyr. They will be monitored for 28 days for the AL group and 42 days for the DHA-PPQ and AS-Pyr arm. The follow-up will consist of scheduled control visits during which clinical examinations and laboratory tests will be carried out. A total of 1050 children will be enrolled in the study. Main results 1. The proportion of patients with early treatment failure, late clinical failure, late parasitological failure or adequate clinical and parasitological response. 2. The frequency and nature of adverse events. 3. The blood concentration of lumefantrine on day 7