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The study hypothesis is that perioperative Auricular (battlefield) acupuncture for general surgery and urology cases undergoing general anesthesia will decrease opioid requirements, postoperative pain, the incidence of PONV, and the incidence of perioperative anxiety in comparison to simulated (placebo) perioperative battlefield acupuncture.
The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to determine the effectiveness of Battlefield Acupuncture (BFA) in addition to standard post-surgical shoulder physical therapy compared to a standard shoulder rehabilitation program in reducing medication use and pain in patients who have undergone shoulder surgery. Measurements of medication (opioid, NSAID, acetaminophen, etc.) use (daily number of pills consumed), pain rating, patient specific functional scale and global rating of change will be taken at 24-hours (baseline), 48-hours, 72-hours, 1-week, and 4-weeks post-surgery. It is hypothesized that the inclusion of Battlefield Acupuncture will result in a decrease in post-surgical pain levels, reduced opioid medication use, and improved patient mood when compared to rehabilitation alone.
Background: Episiotomy is performed in up to 30% of vaginal deliveries. Previously, pain treatment following episiotomy has relied on non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) as analgesics, whose use during breastfeeding remains controversial due of their transfer to the child through lactation. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acupuncture on postpartal perineal pain following episiotomy. Methods: The study is designed as a prospective interventional randomized parallel single-center study to evaluate the effects of auricular acupuncture on pain relief after episiotomy. The population will encompass 60 patients that have had mediolateral episiotomy performed during vaginal delivery, with 29 receiving acupuncture therapy and 31 not receiving acupuncture therapy for pain relief. NSAID analgesic therapy will be made available per request.