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Spasticity of stroke patient, a very common complication in clinical practice, affects performance of hand function and gait pattern. It also interferes with quality of life of patients severely. Currently first line clinical approach to spasticity consist of physical therapy and pharmacological management. However, there are still some refractory cases that needed local intervention such as Botox injection. So far, we only can use subjective methods to measure muscle tension, such as modified Ashworth scale and Tone Assessment Scale. In our previous study, we found that ultrasound shear wave image could correlate with muscle stiffness caused by poststroke spasticity. With this new method, we aim to establish a more objective method in measuring abnormal poststroke muscle tension before and after treatments and further monitor therapeutic effect. We also include several assessment scales to evaluate the correlation between measured muscle spasm and activity of daily living. We hypothesize that the rheological changes in muscles muscle spasm after Botox injection can be detected by ultrasound shear wave image. Therapeutic effect can also be seen in its effect on daily functions. In this project, we will use shear wave imaging of ultrasound to investigate the elasticity (and hardness) of the biceps brachii and brachialis muscle in stroke patients with unilateral hemiplegia before and after Botox injection. The findings of this project will provide the objective evaluation of muscle spasticity and its correlation with functional status, which will provide new points of view toward treatment of spasticity.
In order to tailor interventions, objective assessments of physical function is needed. A limitation of several of today's clinical assessments is that they require too much time and/or space. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) is a commonly used clinical test of physical function in older populations. The TUG is particularly useful due to its short administration time and the little space that is required. The TUG is however of limited value when used in higher-functioning older adults due to ceiling effects. Instrumented versions of TUG (iTUG) computes several outcome measures in addition to the traditional outcome measure which is the total duration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the construct- and discriminative validity of outcomes derived from sensor signals recorded with a smartphone during a five times repeated iTUG (5iTUG).
The overall aim of this study is to explore if a structured drug review will change clinical symptoms and the psychotropic drugs prescription rate in the elderly living in nursing homes (participants of the study). The study will examine how training of nursing home physicians on reviewing prescription lists using the Norwegian general practice criteria - Nursing homes (NorGeP-NH) will influence the participants' clinical symptoms such as cognition, depression, anxiety and their quality of life. Secondary, we will analyse how a structured drug review will influence further psychotropic drug prescribing rates in nursing homes. The hypothesis for this study are: 1. Training of nursing home physicians on doing a systematic drug review will decrease the participants' clinical symptoms and improve their Quality of Life. 2. A systematic drug review will decrease the psychotropic drug prescription rates compared to before the drug review.