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Plant derived foods contain large quantities of non-nutrient phytochemicals that have been extensively studied for their beneficial health effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. Although research on their health effects is abundant, our knowledge on absorption and bioavailability is yet narrow and in some cases zero. The concept of bioavailability involves the identification of the fraction of administered compounds that can reach plasma and body tissues in an unchanged form. The bioactivity of components in foods that are part of our nutrition, either as parent foods or as food supplements, is directly related to bioavailability, the latter being a necessary step to prove efficacy. Mastiha Oil (MO) is extracted from the resin of Pistacia Lentiscus var. Chia (of the Anacardiaceae family), a concentrated source of monoterpenes (e.g., α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene) and triterpenes (e.g., mastihadienonic acid, isomastihadienonic acid), and to a lesser extent of plant sterols, simple phenols and approximately 10% MO (Assimopoulou, & Papageorgiou, 2005, Paraschos et al, 2007, Kaliora, Mylona, Chiou, Petsios, & Andrikopoulos, 2004). MO is a 100% natural product used as a food additive and flavoring and it is manufactured according to the legal standards that make it suitable for human consumption. Its nutritional analysis is presented in Supplementary Table 1. A total of 90 components have been detected in MO (50% monoterpene hydrocarbons, 20% oxygenated monoterpenes, 25% sesquiterpenes). Monoterpenes seem to exhibit beneficial health effects contributing to mechanisms of inflammation and oxidative stress (Subramaniyan, 2017; Madhuri, & Naik, 2017). Research upon the bioavailability of monoterpenes in humans is limited. Herein, we aimed at investigating the bioavailability of the main monoterpenes of MO in humans for the first time. To this end, a novel GC-MS-MS method was employed, since the tandem MS technique can help overcome matrix difficulties. Additionally, based on the existing data regarding the antioxidant activity of monoterpenes, the effect on human antioxidant capacity was evaluated applying the serum oxidisabilty assay. .
The purpose of the current phase I study was to establish bioequivalence, safety, and tolerance of single 300 IU subcutaneous dose of follitropin alfa biosimilar (Primapur) in comparison to that of reference follitropin alfa preparation (Gonal-F) in healthy young female volunteers.
The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which eating black pepper together with vegetables increase the absorption of carotenoids (a class of important nutrients) in the vegetables such as beta-carotene.
Coenzyme Q10 (or CoQ10) is a marketed supplement in US even though it can be synthesized in the body via complicated biochemical pathways. It exists in both reduced and oxidized states, namely ubiquinol and ubiquinone, respectively. It is commonly present in all cell membranes. The main function of CoQ10 is to participate in energy production. Further, the reduced form of CoQ10, ubiquinol, is appreciated as an important lipophilic antioxidant to protect free radical induced damages to DNA, lipid, and proteins. Given that older adults have increased production of free radicals, suboptimal antioxidant defenses toward free radicals, and a decreased capability to replenish utilized CoQ10, CoQ10 supplementation can be one of feasible ways to increase CoQ10 status in order adults. Most supplements available for consumers are in the oxidized form. While the ubiquinol form is also available, whether the reduced form will be more effective to replenish CoQ10 status in older subjects remains to be explored. Thus, investigators aimed to examine whether ubiquinol will be more effectively absorbed in older adults with a low antioxidant defense status. To pursue this aim, investigators will conduct a double blind, randomized, crossover design trail with 5 study visits (1 screening visit and 4 study visits). Ten older men (>55 y, BMI: 25-5 kg/m2) with a compromised antioxidant defenses will be recruited and complete the trial. Eligible subjects will be randomized to receive 200 mg/d ubiquinol or ubiquinone for 2 weeks with 2-week washout between crossover. Ubiquinol and ubiquinone in plasma and immune cells in blood will be assessed to reveal whether the reduced form, ubiquinol, is more absorbable than the oxidized form, ubiquinone in older adults.
Despite the emerging interest in tocotrienols, the absorption of tocotrienols in humans remains unclear especially with different fat diets.This study aimed at evaluating the absorption and distribution of tocotrienols in plasma and lipoproteins in associations with high and low fat diets. Different fat level will affect the absorption and distribution of tocotrienols
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of AZD7325 after intravenous and 14C labeled oral dose
This study was to determine the ADME and metabolites of Proellex following a single oral dose of 25 mg.
To evaluate the effect of food on the rate and extent of absorption of megestrol acetate 625 mg/5 mL , and determine the safety and tolerability of megestrol acetate 625 mg/5 mL in healthy individuals.