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Ultrasound (US) has facilitated the use of caudal block in children and visualization of the needle during insertion. This prospective clinical trial study compares between two different sizes of the used needles, in terms of success rate, number of punctures, detection of the US signs (visualization of the needle, dural displacement, turbulence, and distention), and complications in pediatrics aging between 6-36 months requiring elective lower abdominal and perineal surgeries.
Pulmonary complications are among the most important postoperative complications after midline incisions, for which different analgesic modalities have been tried. Epidural analgesia is the recommended technique to relieve pain after major abdominal surgery owing to the proved superior analgesia, reduction of opioid related side effects as nausea, vomiting, pruritis and sedation, earlier recovery of bowel function and earlier ability for postoperative mobility However, it is not without complications. Rectus sheath block provides several advantages over epidural anesthesia. It lessens the potential risks associated with neuraxial techniques, so it may represent a novel alternative approach for somatic analgesia after major abdominal surgeries. Although patients with rectus sheath block may experience some visceral pain, it is usually minimal by 24 hours after surgery.
Dexamethasone has been recognized as an antiemetic agent after surgeries, and the combination of dexamethasone and tramadol remained stable in solution up to 5 days. In addition, i.v. basal infusion of tramadol is a certified technique in postoperative pain management. We purposed that combined administration of dexamethasone and tramadol adjunct to i.v. morphine is an effective way in treating postoperative pain.