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This study evaluates the effect of phosphorus supplementation on the human metabolome. The investigators will do so by conducting a cross-over study in healthy adults consuming a study diet (normal diet supplemented by neutral sodium phosphorus, 1 gram/day) for seven days and a control diet (normal diet supplemented by sodium and potassium chloride only) for seven days with a 28 day wash-out period in between. Untargeted metabolomic analyses will be done in serum samples obtained at the end of each diet period.
To determine whether treatment with the ENaC inhibitor, amiloride, improves endothelial function and arterial stiffness in obese insulin resistant subjects in a randomized placebo-controlled trial examining pre and postmenopausal women and age-matched men.
Despite advancements in care, most adolescents with T1D have higher BMI and significantly higher HbA1c than recommended and are markedly IR, placing them at increased risk for CVD1,2. Thus, alternative approaches to improve and maintain glycemic control, IR, and BMI for adolescents with T1D are urgently needed. This proposal moves beyond the current insulin and carbohydrate counting-focused lifestyle change paradigm to focus on sleep and circadian misalignment, which will allow for identification of new mechanisms that can be directly translated into future intervention and prevention trials. The goal of the current study is to utilize multiple objective measures of sleep duration, timing (actigraphy), and circadian rhythm (melatonin) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D; N = 20) and examine relationships with glycemic control, IR, vascular health, and BMI. Further, qualitative methodology will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to healthy sleep in adolescents with T1D.
Individuals with pre-diabetes or diabetes would benefit from low impact methods that would improve their insulin sensitivity and aid in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Physical activity helps the body decrease its insulin resistance and burn excess sugar. Many diabetics also suffer from obesity and specific forms or durations of physical exercise may not be viable options for these individuals. Determining whether short bursts of moderate exercise improve blood glucose levels in healthy humans may identify a further method for diabetics to improve their glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study is to determine the most effective moderate exercise that can be completed in 3 minutes and its effectiveness on improving glucose handling, in response to a single day of standardized high-fat and high-carbohydrate feeding in comparison to periods of prolonged sitting.
Muscle insulin resistance is a hallmark of upper body obesity (UBO) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It is unknown whether muscle free fatty acid (FFA) availability or intramyocellular fatty acid trafficking is responsible for muscle insulin resistance, although it has been shown that raising FFA with Intralipid can cause muscle insulin resistance within 4 hours. The investigators do not understand to what extent the incorporation of FFA into ceramides or diacylglycerols (DG) affect insulin signaling and muscle glucose uptake. The investigators propose to alter the profile and concentrations of FFA of healthy, non-obese adults using an overnight, intra-duodenal palm oil infusion vs. an overnight intra-duodenal Intralipid infusion (both compared to saline control). The investigators will compare the muscle FFA storage into intramyocellular triglyceride, intramyocellular fatty acid trafficking, activation of the insulin signaling pathway and glucose disposal rates, providing the first measure of how different FFA profiles alter muscle FFA trafficking and insulin action at the whole body and cellular/molecular levels. By identifying which steps in the insulin signaling pathway are most affected, the investigators will determine the site-specific effect of ceramides and/or DG on different degrees of insulin resistance. Hypothesis 1: Palm oil infusion will result in abnormal FFA trafficking into intra-myocellular ceramides and abnormal insulin signaling. Hypothesis 2: Intralipid infusion will result in abnormal FFA trafficking into intra-myocellular saturated DG and abnormal insulin signaling.
The investigators propose to deliver a 4-week sleep extension intervention to adolescents to evaluate feasibility of the protocol and obtain preliminary data on intra-individual changes in metabolic parameters induced by sleep extension.
This study investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
The growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major public health problem. Recent studies have clearly established that the gut microbiota plays a key role in the investigator's propensity to develop obesity and associated metabolic health disorders. The gut microbiota compositions plays a decisive role in glucose metabolism and the chronic inflammatory state associated with insulin resistance. Consuming prebiotic rich diet, including polyphenol and inulin rich food could help modulate favorably the gut microbiota which could lead to a reduction of endotoxemia and beneficial metabolic health effects.
This randomized, crossover study will include four clinic visits: one screening (day -7) and three test visits (days 0, 2, 4). The objective of this study is to assess the effects of dietary fiber-containing bars, at two doses of fiber, compared to a control product, on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adult men and women.
This study compared traditional concept of preoperative fasting before elective open colon surgery and preoperative treatment with carbohydrate oral drink in intention to improve postoperative stress response to surgical procedure. Hypothesis was: preoperative oral carbohydrate drink reduces postoperative insulin resistance, improves insulin sensitivity, reduces postoperative inflammatory response in terms of the value of Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and IL-6, improves postoperative patient's subjective well-being and surgical clinical outcome.