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The present study will investigate the effect of acute exercise on fasting and postprandial risk markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) in healthy male cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Participants will complete two, 2-day trials in a random crossover design separated by an interval of at least 1 week. On day 1, participants will rest (control) or complete 60 minute of treadmill exercise at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake (exercise). On day 2, participants will rest and consume two high fat meals (breakfast and lunch) over an 8-h period during which 13 venous blood samples and nine blood pressure measurements will be taken at pre-determined intervals. It is hypothesised that men who smoke cigarettes will exhibit impaired fasting and postprandial metabolic risk markers compared to non-smokers, but a single bout of exercise will be equally, if not more, efficacious for improving the CHD risk factor profile in smokers than non-smokers.
This study evaluates the existence of a day-night rhythm in skeletal muscle energy metabolism in prediabetic subjects. Subjects will stay at the research facility for 44 hours with a standardized living protocol during which several measurements of skeletal muscle and whole body energy metabolism will be performed.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia are rapidly increasing with the aging of the population, and show a clear preponderance among people with insulin resistance. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, is being examined in clinical trials as an anti-aging drug. However, very little objective data is available regarding metformin's effect on the brain, a major organ affected by aging.
Overnutrition and physical inactivity promote the accumulation of sphingolipids such as ceramides which block insulin signaling and anabolic metabolism. Implementation of pharmacological or genetic interventions to reduce sphingolipid levels in rodents prevents or reverses an impressive array of metabolic pathologies (e.g. insulin resistance, diabetes, steatohepatitis, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis). To elucidate the tissue-specific mechanisms through which ceramides contribute to these diseases, mice have been produced to allow for the conditional, cell-type restricted ablation of enzymes required for ceramide biosynthesis or degradation (i.e. serine palmitoyltransferase and dihydroceramide desaturases-1) or degradation (i.e. acid ceramidase). Aims of the project include the following: To use these novel mouse models to evaluate the effect of muscle-specific ceramide depletion or induction on insulin sensitivity, muscle growth, and genomic/proteomic signatures under conditions of overnutrition and inactivity. To apply a ceramide flux assay in isolated human myotubes to identify the regulatory mechanisms that influence rates of ceramide biosynthesis; and, To determine the efficacy of a new class of inhibitors of dihydroceramide desaturases-1, our preferred target in the ceramide synthesis pathway, as therapeutics that improve muscle insulin sensitivity and prevent muscle loss in rodents. Findings obtained from these studies could uncover new nutrient-sensing machinery that modulates insulin sensitivity and muscle growth. Moreover, the translational component could lead to new pharmacological approaches for improving muscle health.
Obesity and insulin resistance are worldwide epidemic and taking a major public health toll. Obesity also increases the risk for cognitive impairment which is also an increasing medical, societal, and economic challenge. The ultimate goal of this proposal is to develop a statistical model to assess systemic cross-talk between brain, peripheral tissues, gut microbiota and glucose metabolism. Integrated with exercise training intervention the results will be utilized to provide disease risk profiling and personalized predictions of exercise training as a drug free treatment for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
To examine the differential effect of camel and cow milk on the physiological response, to a liquid mixed-meal challenge, in people with normal glucose tolerance
This study is a prospective cohort study, following 80 morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, specifically Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The investigators are measuring intestinal microbiota (IM) and oral microbiota (OM) at the beginning before any treatment, at the time of surgery, which is after a very low calorie standard diet, and 1 and 6 months after surgery. The investigators assess whether changes in IM are related to changes in insulin resistance (IR), other features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and OM.
A total of 40 premenopausal women diagnosed clinically as having insulin resistance. Their ages ranged from 35 to 45 years old; their body mass index was >30 kg/m2 and They were obese women complained of insulin resistance and non diabetic or cardiovascular disease, were randomly assigned to group A participated in aerobic & resistive exercise program, and group B participated in aerobic exercise and followed prescribed diet restriction program. Both of the groups (A&B) followed the treatment program 3 times per weeks for 8 weeks. Assessment of the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA test of insulin resistance were measured for all subjects in both groups (A and B) was carried out before and after the end of the treatment program
Previous preclinical investigations have found that Medicago sativa promotes the decrease of glucose concentrations. To evaluate the acute effect of Medicago sativa administration on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.
The present study will investigate the effect of prior walking on postprandial metabolism and endothelial function in healthy South Asian and White European women. Participants will complete two, 2-day trials in a random, crossover design separated by at least 3 weeks to control for the menstrual cycle phase. On day 1, participants will either rest or complete a 60 minute walk at 60% maximal oxygen uptake. On day 2, participants will arrive at 08:00 having fasted overnight and a baseline venous blood sample and endothelial function measurement will be taken. Participants will consume a high-fat breakfast and lunch and 12 subsequent venous blood samples will be taken throughout the day at standardised intervals to measure a variety of coronary heart disease risk markers. A second endothelial function measurement will be completed 2 hours after the breakfast. Blood pressure will be measured every hour. It is expected that the South Asian participants will have impaired metabolism and endothelial function compared to their European counterparts but the bout of exercise performed on day 1 will mitigate these responses.