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Recurrent pregnancy loss is classically defined as the occurrence of three or more consecutive pregnancy loss. The American Society of Reproductive Medicine has recently redefined recurrent pregnancy loss as two or more pregnancy losses. A pregnancy loss is defined as a clinically-recognized pregnancy means that the pregnancy has been visualized on an ultrasound or that pregnancy tissue was identified after a pregnancy loss.
High-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve-stimulation (TENS) is an inexpensive and non-invasive pain control approach. TENS, pulsating electrical currents that activate underlying nerves, does not have drug interactions or risk of overdose. Cochrane review of TENS for acute pain found inconclusive evidence. One previous abortion trial comparing TENS to IV sedation only looked at pain control in the recovery room. The investigators propose a randomized controlled trial comparing TENS to IV sedation (in conjunction with local anesthesia) among women presenting for first-trimester surgical abortion. Primary outcome will be perceived pain by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during cervical dilation.
The study titled, Manual Versus Electric Vacuum Aspiration for Pregnancy Termination Between 10-14 weeks: A Randomized Trial, is a randomized trial to compare procedure times for manual and electric vacuum aspiration for surgical abortion between 10 0/7 and 13 6/7 weeks gestation. Women presenting for surgical abortion between 10 0/7 and 13 6/7 weeks gestation will be randomized to either undergo manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or electric vacuum aspiration (EVA). The investigators hypothesize that operative times will be increased when using manual vacuum aspiration, as compared to electric vacuum aspiration, for surgical abortion performed in the late first trimester (10 0/7 and-13 6/7 weeks).
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nitrous oxide on pain felt by women having a surgical termination at less than 11 weeks compared to pain felt by women receiving oral pain medications.