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The majority of abortions in the United Kingdom (UK) are performed before 9 weeks (63 days) gestation using a method known as Early Medical Abortion (EMA). EMA involves an assessment visit and provision of two types of medication . The assessment visit usually involves Ultrasound to confirm gestation, detailed personal history, safeguarding assessment and contraception planning, before arranging treatment and follow up. The process is long and lots of information is given to women attending the service. In NHS Lothian (National Health Service, Lothian Health Board), the average appointment length for combined assessment and provision of the first part of treatment is 3 hours. Despite how common abortion is ( 1 in 3), many women presenting for abortion care are not aware of what the procedure will involve. This may in part to the social stigma surrounding abortion and unintended pregnancy in general. This stigma can in turn result in feelings of anxiety and shame about the decision to terminate a pregnancy. There is evidence that short videos shown to patients prior to abortion or contraception consultations can improve their ability to recall information and can make them feel more confident about the procedure. Additionally, abortion care providers have found patients who have seen videos to be better prepared and informed and this allows consultations to progress more easily and allow greater time for discussion of contraceptive methods. We have prepared a video approximately 3 minutes in length to provide information about EMA. It summarises the process described above using simple language and animated characters. The video has been translated into French, Portuguese and Swedish and has been adapted to reflect subtle differences in practice and law in these countries. We have partners in services in these three countries who will be conducting the trial there in accordance with this protocol and their own local ethics and clinical governance requirements.
Recurrent pregnancy loss is classically defined as the occurrence of three or more consecutive pregnancy loss. The American Society of Reproductive Medicine has recently redefined recurrent pregnancy loss as two or more pregnancy losses. A pregnancy loss is defined as a clinically-recognized pregnancy means that the pregnancy has been visualized on an ultrasound or that pregnancy tissue was identified after a pregnancy loss.
High-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve-stimulation (TENS) is an inexpensive and non-invasive pain control approach. TENS, pulsating electrical currents that activate underlying nerves, does not have drug interactions or risk of overdose. Cochrane review of TENS for acute pain found inconclusive evidence. One previous abortion trial comparing TENS to IV sedation only looked at pain control in the recovery room. The investigators propose a randomized controlled trial comparing TENS to IV sedation (in conjunction with local anesthesia) among women presenting for first-trimester surgical abortion. Primary outcome will be perceived pain by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during cervical dilation.
The study titled, Manual Versus Electric Vacuum Aspiration for Pregnancy Termination Between 10-14 weeks: A Randomized Trial, is a randomized trial to compare procedure times for manual and electric vacuum aspiration for surgical abortion between 10 0/7 and 13 6/7 weeks gestation. Women presenting for surgical abortion between 10 0/7 and 13 6/7 weeks gestation will be randomized to either undergo manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or electric vacuum aspiration (EVA). The investigators hypothesize that operative times will be increased when using manual vacuum aspiration, as compared to electric vacuum aspiration, for surgical abortion performed in the late first trimester (10 0/7 and-13 6/7 weeks).
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nitrous oxide on pain felt by women having a surgical termination at less than 11 weeks compared to pain felt by women receiving oral pain medications.