There are about 22 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in Afghanistan. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
Over the years, there has been some progress made in reducing stunting in Afghanistan, the prevalence remains high with half of the provinces experiencing rates above the WHO alert threshold. As part of the Country Strategic Plan (CSP), the World Food Programme (WFP) plans to implement a stunting prevention programme in collaboration with Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) through its Public Nutrition Department (PND) in selected locations with stunting rates above 45%. The programme will emphasis on appropriate nutrition support in the '1000 days' window of opportunity with special focus on proven effective nutrition interventions such appropriate breast feeding, complementary feeding, micronutrient supplementation, malnutrition treatment and prevention, WASH.
Background and study aims Depression is more prevalent in younger populations. The age of first onset of depression has become younger, yet many adolescents with depressive symptoms remain untreated. Rates of anxiety and depression are increasing among children and young people.postsecondary education also represents a peak onset period for the occurrence of mental disorders. It is estimated that 12-46% of all university students are affected by mental health disorders in any given year. Who can participate? Afghan students over 18 years old fluent in Persian or Pashto, and access to an internet connection. What does the study involve? Participants will be randomly allocated to receive training in skills and coping strategies which are useful in stressful conditions.
This treatment protocol is designed to provide convalescent plasma as a therapeutic option for patients diagnosed with and hospitalized for COVID-19 with symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening.
Disease caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
The study will be a mixed methods, two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial. The primary aim of this evaluation is to measure the effectiveness of the Community-Based Nutrition Package intervention on child feeding practices among parents/caregivers to children 6 to 23 months of age in Afghanistan.
This will be a single-arm observational cohort study. Malaria patients with Plasmodium vivax and meeting study inclusion criteria, who give consent to be enrolled in the study, will have their G6PD status measured by the CareStart™ G6DP rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT), and primaquine prescribed according to the result. According to the G6PD RDT result, primaquine will be prescribed at 0.25mg/kg/day for 14 days (normal patients) or 0.75mg/kg weekly for eight weeks (deficient patients). All will receive treatment with chloroquine to clear asexual stages of infection. Patients will be reviewed at day 2, day 7 and day 14. At these visits patients will undergo a brief clinical assessment and a small blood sample will be taken for repeat haemoglobin measurement and dried blood spot for carboxyprimaquine measurement (day 7 and day 14 only). In general, antimalarial treatment will be unsupervised to reflect field conditions. However a subset of 25 G6PD normal patients at a single site will have each day of their primaquine treatment administered and observed at the treatment centre. This is to determine a calibration curve for primaquine pharmacokinetic studies. Dried blood spots will be stored appropriately. Day zero samples will be genotyped in Bangkok (MORU, Dr. Mallika Imwong) after DNA extraction. PCR-RFLP will be used to detect the allele associated with the Mediterranean variant of G6PD deficiency. In addition DNA extracts will be sent for more systematic genetic testing for known G6PD variants through existing collaborations with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. The day 7 and 14 dried blood spot samples will be analysed in the MORU pharmacology laboratory for primaquine and carboxyprimaquine concentrations, from which adherence to primaquine can be determined retrospectively, using the subset of 25 patients receiving directly observed therapy to calibrate the results. Funder: WellcomeTrust, Grant reference: 107548/Z/15/Z
The main determinant of primaquine efficacy is the total dose of primaquine administered, rather than the dosing schedule. Previous trials have demonstrated that the standard low dose regimen of primaquine (3.5 mg/kg total) fails to prevent relapses in many different endemic locations. For this reason the 2010 WHO antimalarial guidelines now recommend a high dose regimen of 7 mg/kg (equivalent to an adult dose of 30mg per day), although many countries still recommend lower doses for fear of causing more serious harm to unscreened G6PDd patients. Shorter courses of higher daily doses of primaquine have the potential to improve adherence and thus effectiveness without compromising efficacy. Primaquine also has relatively weak but clinically relevant asexual stage activity against P. vivax so larger daily doses may substantially augment chloroquine's blood stage activity at low levels of resistance. In Thailand directly observed primaquine (1mg/kg/day) administered over 7 days was well tolerated and reduced relapses by day 28 to 4%. This is encouraging but not definitive since many relapses present after one month. Longer follow-up is needed to distinguish whether relapse was prevented or deferred. If the efficacy, tolerability and safety of short-course, high-dose primaquine regimens can be assured across the range of endemic settings, along with reliable point-of-care G6PDd diagnostics, then this new primaquine regimen would be a major advance in malaria treatment improving adherence to and thus the effectiveness of anti-relapse therapy. Due to the long duration of standard primaquine treatment regimens, courses are difficult to supervise, are poorly adhered to and lack effectiveness. This proposed multicentre randomised clinical trial will provide evidence across a variety of endemic settings on the safety and efficacy of high dose-short course primaquine in G6PD normal patients. In a parallel single arm study the investigators will also gather safety data on the use of weekly primaquine in patients with G6PDd. This study aims to generate evidence that will directly inform global public health policy for the radical cure of P. vivax. A better understanding of the risks and benefits of primaquine is crucial in persuading policy makers and clinicians of the importance of the radical cure of vivax malaria that will reduce the parasite reservoir and decrease transmission. The funder is Medical Research Council, UK. Grant number: MRC Reference: MR/K007424/1
The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) was recently developed as a durable, portable, and "field-hardened" NeuroCognitive Assessment Tool. The purpose of this study is to compare the sensitivity of the DANA Brief exam with the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) battery currently used by the military after concussion. The primary hypothesis is that the DANA Brief exam will be more sensitive for detecting continued impaired cognitive performance than the ANAM during recovery after a concussion.
The purpose of this study is to compare the sensitivity of the DANA Rapid exam with the MACE cognitive score. The primary hypothesis is that the DANA Rapid exam will be more sensitive for detecting impaired cognitive performance than the MACE cognitive score in the setting of a clinical diagnosis of concussion at the point of injury in the combat setting. A secondary purpose of this study is to examine a serial performance on the DANA Rapid exam in those subjects diagnosed with a concussion. The secondary hypothesis is that the DANA Rapid exam will show improvements in performance during the recovery period after concussion.
In Afghanistan, studies over the past 15 years have shown a high degree of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine. In 2003 the high failure rate of chloroquine against falciparum malaria led the national malaria treatment programme to switch its recommended first line drug treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of Artesunate/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP). Second line drug treatment is oral quinine (7 days). For operational reasons, prior to recent studies (manuscript in preparation) there have been no molecular data on P. falciparum SP resistance markers from within the borders of Afghanistan. These studies have revealed early evidence of increasing SP resistance (resistance polymorphisms with double DHFR & triple DHPS mutations). The aim of this study is to conduct a focused, prospective study in Kunar for monitoring of the efficacy of the AS+SP combination in this province, along with molecular studies of isolates from recruited patients.