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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of INP105, which is an investigational drug-device combination product comprised of the drug component OLZ administered by a Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD®) nasal spray device (I231 POD® Device). The proposed indication for INP105 is the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether oral olanzapine is safer (fewer adverse events) and more effective (shorter time to sedation) than conventional haloperidol or diazepam when used in the management of acute agitation in the emergency.
The Psychiatric Emergency Services (PES) is an under researched area of clinical practice, largely in the management of acutely agitated and violent patients. The goal of this pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) is to assess the benefit of medically monitoring patients that present with extreme agitation and/or violent behaviour to PES. Placing them in physical restraints and immediately administering chemical restraint, will enable medical monitoring of these potentially medically unstable patients. Investigators believe that this practice will provide safer management of patients, reduce risk to staff and other patients, reduce risk of undiagnosed medical conditions that underly the agitation, and increase clinical management and quality of care. Patients that come into the Emergency Department that are agitated and violent, where verbal-deescalation will not suffice, will be randomly treated with either immediate placement in seclusion (current practice) or be placed in physical restraints and given chemical restraint (as outlined in the BETA project guidelines). The same time interval assessments will be performed on both groups of patients including; medical monitoring and agitation scale assessment. Data will also be collected on number of violent episodes, code whites, required increase in the use of physical restraints, length of intervention, and more. This assessment will enable a comparison between the current practice and the proposed practice to establish evidence based clinical guidelines for the management of acute agitation in PES, where de-escalation techniques are ineffective and the lack of medical monitoring is harmful to the patient and can negatively effect their outcome. In order to best assess the importance of medical monitoring for such patients, a pilot study must be performed to assess the feasibility of such a phase III RCT study.