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In children with chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal failure is associated with high patient morbidity and poor quality of life. In adults, inhibition of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) slows down the rate of renal failure progression. This concept is as yet unproven in children, in whom chronic renal failure (CRF) is more commonly due to hypo/dysplastic malformations than to acquired glomerulopathies as typical for adult chronic kidney disease. The current project aims at assessing the genetic and molecular mechanisms and cardiovascular consequences of progressive CRF and to develop a strategy of pharmacological renoprotection in children.