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This parallel, randomized, controlled trial aims to quantify the effects of slip- and trip-perturbation training on fall rates collected over 12 months, compared to time-matched treadmill walking, among community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years). A sample size calculation estimated that 128 older community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) are needed. Following baseline measures, the recruited participants will randomly be assigned to either the perturbation or the walking group. The participants in the perturbation group will be assigned to four perturbation training sessions. The walking group will perform four treadmill walking matching the exercise time of the perturbation training. Assessment of the primary outcome, fall rates, will be conducted continuously in 12 months from randomization. When a fall is reported in the fall calendar, a telephone interview will be conducted to assess the circumstances and consequences (e.g., fall-related fractures, fall-related hospital admissions) of the falls. Moreover, assessment of physical, cognitive, and social-psychological outcomes will be made at baseline, post-test, six-month, and 12-months reassessment.
The purpose of this study is to examine differences in driving performance on a simulated driving assessment between novice teen drivers who receive the Risk Anticipation-Perception Training (RAPT) program and novice teen drivers who do not receive the training program.