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This will be a multistate, multicenter clinical study to determine the efficacy and safety of medical cannabis for a wide variety of chronic medical conditions.
Introduction: Patients suffering a time-critical medical condition require rapid prehospital assessment and treatment and most often quick transportation to definitive care. This can be decisive for patient outcome. In order to minimize time from assessment to treatment, thus lowering mortality and morbidity, it is important to have a well-coordinated chain of care. The efficient use of Ground Emergency Medical Services (GEMS) and Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) is essential in such a chain of care. Objectives: The aim is to describe differences in mortality, morbidity, assessment and treatment of two time-critical conditions, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute myocardial infarction (MI), in patients assessed by GEMS and HEMS respectively. Method: The project consists of a descriptive observational study and comparative cohort study. Inclusion criteria are patients considered to be suffering from TBI and acute MI, which are treated by GEMS or HEMS in the regions of Uppsala, Jämtland/Härjedalen, Dalarna and Värmland. Clinical significance: The results expect to be the basis for further studies aiming to optimize the utilization of GEMS and HEMS.
Whilst deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), optimal timing and safety of pharmacological prophylaxis is uncertain. Paradoxically the harm associated with the occurrence of is also unclear. This study is an observational pilot that aims to define the incidence of proximal DVT in patients with moderate to severe TBI. It seeks prospectively to determine if there is an association between DVT and outcome. It also seeks to explore possible associations between the occurrence of DVT and the incidence of lung injury and/or ventilator associated pneumonia.
Spasticity - a variety of motor over-activity and part of the upper motor neuron syndrome - is a common cause of impaired motor function after brain injuries of different etiologies. In addition, it may cause pain and impaired hygiene, contractures, deformities etc. Spasticity has been reported in 30 to 90% of patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) and cerebral palsy (CP). Spasticity therapy has emerged as an important approach to alleviate related symptoms. Positive effects on spasticity are well recognized following systemic and intra-thecal pharmacological treatment, as well as after intra-muscularly injected substances; the effect of the latter is, however, of limited duration. While pharmacological spasticity therapy has been applied for decades, surgical procedures remain fairly uncommon in adults with spasticity, but not in pediatric patients with CP, and outcomes after surgical treatment are scarcely described in the literature. The study center is a specialized unit initially focused on reconstructive as well as spasticity reducing surgery in the upper extremities for SCI patients. Subsequently, patients with spasticity also due to various other Central nervous system diseases have been referred to the center for surgical treatment. Studies describing the effect of spasticity-reducing surgery in the upper extremities are rare and the group is heterogeneous. The aim of the study is therefore to evaluate the results and compare against todays golden standard treatment (boutuliniumtoxin injections).
Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that Service Members with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) who participate in the Service Dog Training Program (SDTP) report improved physical and psychological outcomes, including those with overlapping symptoms associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-concussion symptoms (PCS). This study intends to examine the psychological, social, and biological effects of learning how to train a future service dog combined with standard of care for individuals with symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress (PTS), including those with overlapping TBI and persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms (PCS). Biological, social, and behavioral measures will be collected throughout study participation.
In this study, investigators look at a different type of technology that might help to avoid having to perform CT scans in certain patients suspected of having a head injury. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) uses a specific light wavelength to determine if there is bleeding into the head as a result of trauma. Investigators will study NIRS, using a device called the Infrascanner model 2000, to determine if it is as good at detecting bleeding in the head as CT scan, which is the current gold standard. Investigators will try to determine if NIRS can rule in or rule out bleeding into the head, and perhaps this can help to avoid subjecting these youth to the potentially harmful effects of radiation. Investigators will also study how easy it is to use NIRS so that it might become a standard part of the workup for children with suspected head injury.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death among trauma patients accounting for one-third of all trauma mortalities. Patients who survive the initial trauma are liable to secondary insults from the ensuing inflammatory state in the brain. Treatment goals are aimed at reducing secondary injury. Maintaining adequate brain perfusion, limiting cerebral edema, and optimizing oxygen delivery are part of established treatment protocols. Numerous therapeutics have been evaluated as potential treatment for TBI with very limited success and there is no medication that alters survival. Various novel therapeutic options have been investigated to prevent the secondary brain injury. Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC) is one of these therapies. RIC involves decreasing blood flow to a normal tissue usually the arm by inflating the blood pressure cuff 30mmHg over the systolic blood pressure. The decreased blood flow or ischemia is maintained for 5 minutes followed by releasing the pressure and re-perfusion of the arm. This cycle is usually repeated 4 times. RIC has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with heart attacks, strokes, elective neurosurgeries. A prospective observational study and a randomized clinical trial has shown the protective effect of RIC in TBI patients. Additionally, multiple studies in animals have shown that RIC is neuroprotective after TBI. RIC is non-invasive and harmless except for a little discomfort in the arm. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of RIC on long term outcomes in patients with TBI.
EEG signals have been collected and studied since the early 1990's as a way of assessing brain function at a gross level. As early as the 1930's a derivative of the raw EEG signal - event-related potentials (ERPs) - have been computed. The current research is primarily focused on three ERP components: the N100, P300 and N400. Each of the three ERPs have been studied in the academic laboratory for multiple decades. Through this research, a strong understanding has been developed regarding what can affect these components (e.g. task set, emotional state, etc.). However, these signals within various pediatric populations (e.g., those with persistent mTBI symptoms or multiple concussions) are not well characterized. Being able to safely and effectively employ the NeuroCatch™ Platform in a post-concussive pediatric cohort could provide researchers with the potential to elucidate the persistence of objective measures of impairment, patterns of recovery, and chronicity of problems due to mTBI in children. Secondly, understanding the degree to which these neurophysiological components fluctuate over time is crucial to the understanding of brain functioning. However, for this type of technology to be useful in quantifying brain health in this population,the degree to which a post-concussive pediatric brain naturally fluctuates in its processing capability must be quantified. NeuroCatch™ Platform has the ability to measure changes in several domains of brain function. These cognitive processes are foundational blocks for some of the highest cognitive processes: information integration and executive functioning.
Motor neglect describes a loss of function without a loss of strength, reflexes or sensation. Motor neglect has been described in patients with traumatic brain injury, stroke and chronic pain conditions, e.g. complex regional pain syndrome. These conditions affect hundreds of thousands of patients in the UK each year and motor neglect is a significant obstacle in their rehabilitation towards a good outcome. By focussing on improving motor neglect, outcomes including function and quality of life for these groups of patients may significantly improve. Motor neglect is potentially reversible. Rehabilitation using repetition, feedback and motivation are beneficial for optimal outcome. Current protocols use face-to-face physical therapies which can not optimise intensity due to a lack of resources. Furthermore, engagement with exercise is recognised to be poor, in part, due to a lack of attention. Innovative technologies may well improve engagement. Furthermore, telemedicine, or remote delivery of healthcare, offer opportunities in resource management, which can be delivered through the use of such innovative technologies. Virtual reality systems have been designed and utilised in rehabilitation in various conditions, e.g post-stroke, cerebral palsy and Parkinson's disease. Studies demonstrate improved function in both upper and lower limbs. Potentially more effective treatments for motor neglect utilising such technology are therefore available but need more formal evaluation. This protocol describes a Phase II randomised controlled trial for both in-patients and out-patients requiring rehabilitation with motor neglect from neurological causes (stroke, traumatic brain injury) and chronic pain conditions (Complex Regional Pain Syndromes, chronic low back pain and referred leg pain (sciatica)). The intervention will be a novel interactive virtual reality system using established technology and tailored software used in conjunction with a treadmill. The control group will be the same screen showing random static images whilst on the treadmill. Rehabilitation for each group will be offered in 3-4 sessions per week for 2 weeks. Each session will last about 30 minutes supervised by a physiotherapist. Follow-up will be by questionnaire at weeks 2, 6 and 12 and by face-to-face consultation at weeks 2 and 12.
Main objective : To compare the quality of the prognostic assessment, (adverse evolution at 6 months) of severe and moderate traumatic brain injury, performed by the clinician compared to the prognosis described by the IMPACT score. The Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital is conducting a study evaluating the clinician's prognostic assessment of severe and moderate traumatic brain injury compared to the prognosis described by the IMPACT score. The investigators compare the quality of the clinician's prognostic assessment (adverse evolution at 6 months) of severe and moderate traumatic brain injury to the prognosis described by the IMPACT score.