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Severe acute brain injury (SABI), including large artery acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and severe traumatic brain injury continue to be the leading cause of death and disability in adults in the U.S. Due to concerns for a poor long-term quality of life, withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and supportive medical care with transition to comfort care is the most common cause of death in SABI, but occurs at a highly variable rate (for example in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 45-89%). Decision aids (DAs) are shared decision-making tools which have been successfully implemented and validated for many other diseases to assist difficult decision making. The investigators have developed a pilot DA for goals-of-care decisions for surrogates of SABI patients. This was developed through qualitative research using semi-structured interviews in surrogate decision makers of TBI patients and physicians. The investigators now propose to pilot-test a DA for surrogates of SABI patients in a feasibility trial.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common cause of morbidity in combat veterans, but current treatments are often inadequate. Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories (RTM) is a novel treatment that seeks to alter key aspects of the target memory (e.g., color, clarity, speed, distance, perspective) to make it less impactful, and reduce nightmares, flashbacks, and other features of PTSD. The memory is reviewed in the context of an imaginal movie theater, presenting a fast (~45 sec) black and white movie of the trauma memory, with further adjustment as needed so the patient can comfortably watch it. Open and waitlist studies of RTM have reported high response rates and rapid remission, setting the stage for this randomized, controlled, single-blind trial comparing RTM versus prolonged exposure (PE), the PTSD therapy with the strongest current evidence base. The investigators hypothesize that RTM will be non-inferior to PE in reducing PTSD symptom severity post-treatment and at 1-year follow up; will achieve faster remission, with fewer dropouts; will improve cognitive function; and that epigenetic markers will correlate with treatment response. The investigators will randomize 108 active or retired service members (SMs) with PTSD to ≤10 sessions of RTM or PE, affording power to test our hypotheses while allowing for ≤ 25% dropouts. The investigators will use an intent to treat analysis, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, or DSM5 (CAPS-5), conducted by blinded assessors, will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), sleep (PSQI), and functional status (WHOQOL-100), will be assessed pre- and post-treatment, and at 2, 6, and 12 months. ANOVA will compare symptom severity over time within and between groups. Blood draws will be obtained pre- and posttreatment to assess predictors of treatment response and epigenetic markers of change. The NIH Toolbox Neurocognitive Assessment, pre- and post-treatment, will assess impact on cognitive function. The investigators will track comorbid TBI, anticipating it will not adversely impact response. More palatable and effective therapies for PTSD, with and without TBI, must be developed and evaluated. RTM is safe and promising, but requires testing against evidence-based interventions in well-designed randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Demonstrating corresponding biomarker and neurocognitive improvements will corroborate results, and may facilitate more tailored treatment approaches in the future.
The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate adult subjects currently taking phytocannabinoid Hemp-derived botanical supplements (HDS) during recovery from traumatic brain injury. This study seeks to answer whether subjects taking HDS formulations experience relief from self-reported symptoms or improved subjective well-being, sleep quality, cognitive benefits, side effects and/or quantifiable changes in brain state neuronal activity or stress biomarkers. We seek to answer whether regular users (once/week to multiple uses/day) of HDS experience signs of dependence, addiction or physiological withdrawal. To accomplish this we will use survey questions, quantitative EEG, cognitive testing and salivary biomarkers to determine the effectiveness of self-initiated HDS administration. In addition, we are interested in whether our objective measures allow us to understand why some people are responders to HDS health benefits while others are not.
Pupillar diameter variation to predict success or failure of external ventricular derivation clamping. Pupillometry utilisation as a diagnostic tool in external ventricular clamping test in neurological ICU should improve patients care in several ways : - earlier use of ventriculo-peritoneal or ventriculo-atrial shunts to shorten the external ventricular treatment duration and thus reduce risks of infection and hospital stay duration - limit the medical imagery prescription and radiation exposition - avoid neurological deterioration linked to the external ventricular drain clamping in case of the pupillometric parameters variation would be earlier than clinical signs
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically provokes secondary injury mechanisms, including the dynamic interplay between the ischemic, inflammatory, and cytotoxic processes. Moreover, such an impact induces a substantial level of cell death and results in the degeneration of the dendrites, thereby leading to persistent motor, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that the adult-born immature granule neurons in the dentate gyrus are the most susceptible of all the cell types in the hippocampus to damage following a moderate TBI due to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device. Currently, there is no efficient approach available for avoiding immature neuron death or degeneration following TBI. Hence, this study aimed to assess the neuro-regenerative properties of co-ultramicronized PEALut (Glialia®), which is composed of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and the flavonoid luteolin (Lut), in an in vivo model of TBI, as well as in patients affected by TBI.
Blepharoptosis (incomplete opening of the eyelids) occurs because of a disruption in the normal agonist-antagonist neuro-muscular complex balance. An external device could restore eyelid movement. A newer class of permanent magnets made of alloys of neodymium (Nd), iron (Fe) and boron (B) might provide the technology needed to develop a feasible external magnetic device that could restore eyelid movement.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)patients often suffer from loss of muscle strength in the hand and foot, decrease in coordination and high muscle tone (spasticity). In this study, investigators seek to compare how two different training programs can improve the coordination and symptoms of fatigue in individuals with movement deficits secondary to TBI. Using brain imaging, the study will also investigate changes in brain structure and activity associated with hand movement.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a manualized intervention (FITS) to families living with traumatic brain injury or traumatic spinal cord injury. The intervention will be provided by a trained neuropsychologist and consists of 8 structured sessions of 90 minutes duration. The intervention group will be compared to a control group receiving treatment as usual, one psycho-educational group session of a 2.5 hour duration.
The purpose of this study is to test the effects of an innovative exercise program referred to as movement-2-music (M2M) on health and fitness outcomes in adults with physical/mobility disabilities. One hundred and eight participants with physical/mobility disabilities will be recruited and randomly enrolled into one of two groups: a) M2M or b) waitlist control. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 12-week M2M program on health and fitness in participants with physical/mobility disabilities who are in one of three functional mobility groups: 1) Group I - only able to exercise while sitting, 2) Group II - able to exercise sitting and standing with/without support, and 3) Group III - able to exercise one side of the body more than the other side. The second aim is to compare the observed effects of the program in this study to a previous M2M study that groups participants based on disability type. The third aim of this study is to test whether adherence (defined as attendance to the 12-week program) affects the effects of M2M in participants with physical/mobility disabilities. The potential influences of different functional mobility and disabilities of participants on how the program affects participants' health and fitness outcomes will also be tested.
Background and Purpose: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are persistent and frequently comorbid complications of recent combat. There is no proven treatment for mTBI, and standard treatments for PTSD frequently achieve only transient, modest impact. Motion-assisted, Multi-modular Memory Desensitization and Reconsolidation (3MDR) is a novel treatment for PTSD combining aspects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), within the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN). The added benefit of the eye movement (EM) component of EMDR is controversial; the purpose of this pilot study is therefore to: 1) obtain an initial estimate of the efficacy of 3MDR in service members with comorbid PTSD and mTBI, and 2) determine the impact of EM on treatment response. The investigators hypothesize that 3MDR will significantly improve symptom severity, both with and without EM. Population: Participants will be active or retired service members with a history of mTBI who meet criteria for probable PTSD on the PCL5. It is anticipated that participants will be recruited through the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) Recruitment Core and the National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE). Design type and procedures: This is a pilot, controlled clinical trial in which all 20 participants with comorbid PTSD and mTBI receive 10 sessions (3 preparatory, 6 3MDR treatment, and 1 conclusion), but will be randomized to either include EM (EM+) or not (EM-). In the preparatory sessions, the therapist will help each participant select 2 songs and 14 pictures to be used in their treatment sessions. The therapist will help the participant rate the pictures from least to most impactful. Each 3MDR treatment session will start by playing the first song, to bring them back to the time of their trauma. This will be done while the participant walks on the CAREN's embedded treadmill through the 3MDR virtual environment (VE) projected onto the system's curved screen. This is followed by a display of one of their pictures, a manifestation of their trauma, which they directly face and walk down a hallway toward, until the picture looms before them. The therapist, standing next to the participant along the treadmill's edge, will query the participant about what the picture means to them, how it makes them feel, etc., while the CAREN operator superimposes key words (said by the participant) over the picture, which the therapist later asks the participant to read aloud. Then, for ~60 seconds, the EM+ group will see a red ball "bounce" across the screen in front of the picture, and a number appears on the ball as it touches the screen's edge. The participant will be asked to recite each number aloud. This element is absent for EM- participants. All participants repeats these procedures for 5-7 pictures in each 3MDR treatment session; the pictures used will be agreed upon by therapist and participant, targeting more impactful pictures, whether repeats or new, in later sessions. The pictures are followed by playing the second song, chosen to bring the participant back to present day. The participant will walk at a comfortable pace throughout the session, with each session lasting typically ~60 minutes. The primary outcome measure will be change in PCL-5 score from pre- to post-intervention, with additional measures at 3 and 6 months.