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The goal of the Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity Consortium (MoTrPAC) is to assess molecular changes that occur in response to physical activity (PA). To achieve this aim, a mechanistic randomized controlled trial (RCT) is conducted, in which adult study participants are randomized to endurance exercise (EE) training, resistance exercise (RE) training, or no exercise Control for a period of approximately 12 weeks. The overarching hypothesis is that there are discoverable molecular transducers that communicate and coordinate the effects of exercise on cells, tissues, and organs, which may initiate processes ultimately leading to the health benefits of exercise. Because this is a mechanistic trial, the main goal is not a health-related outcome. Rather, the goal is to generate a map of the molecular responses to exercise that will be used by the Consortium and by the scientific community at large to generate hypotheses for future investigations of the health benefits of PA.
This research hypothesizes that moderate physical activity in a "green environment" (e.g. a forest preserve path) has increased benefits on psychological measures (stress, anxiety, mood, depression, attention) and on physiological measures (Heart Rate Variability, Blood Glucose, Salivary Cortisol) when directly compared to activity in a "gray environment" (urban or suburban sidewalks). The study design is a randomized crossover design in which each subject is assigned randomly to a group which determines the order in which participants will walk in each location. Subjects will take three 50-minute walks per location in one week, with half of the subjects taking the urban walks first as per group assignment. Control data are collected on days when participants do not walk. Physiological data are taken during walks and control periods (heart rate, heart rate variation). Biomarker samples (saliva, dried blood spots) are taken on selected days. Psychological data are take before and after walks and control periods.
This is a prospective clinical study that studies how the physical activity level before operation of colon cancer affects the outcome of complication and histology. The hypothesis is that people who are more physical active have less postoperative complications and different histology around the tumor. We are testing the patients before the surgery with physical tests for fitness, strength and physical activity level. Questionnaires are also filled by the patients for pain, anxiety, depression and motivation for life style changes. Their body mass is analyzed with a DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan). For one years we are monitoring their activity and follow up for physical tests, DEXA and questionnaires is at 6 and 12 months. The histology is analyzed after surgery to se if we have a different inflammatory response around the tumor.
Physical exercises program is known to improve quality of life, chronical fatigue and appears to be a behavioural recommendation against cancer as primary and tertiary prevention. Nutritional status is also important in cancer patients: a loss of 5% of weight increases the complication risks and decreases survival and the quality of life. Interactions between physical activity and haematological malignancies are less described compared to solid cancers. Methodology and protocols are also heterogeneous. Supervised exercises program improves the physical condition and the quality of life; however there are few randomised studies versus a controlled group. Post autograft evaluation for myeloma patients showed a physical deficit with increased fat mass, but in this particular population physical exercises need to be more explored. This project is a randomised study versus controlled group that evaluates supervised physical exercises program in a homogenous population: patients under-65-years-old with multiple myeloma and who will undergo autologous stem cell transplantation.
In 2014 the Danish Government introduced a wide-ranging school reform that applies to all public schools in Denmark. In a physical activity promotion perspective, a distinctive feature of the school reform is that it has become mandatory to integrate an average of 45 minutes of daily physical activity in the regular school day. The overarching objective of the PHASAR study is to evaluate the implementation of this ambitious policy-driven physical activity promotion initiative and its potential effect on physical activity and overweight. The PHASAR study provides a rare opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of a nation-wide policy-driven school-based physical activity promotion initiative.
The purpose is to establish feasibility of delivering an individually-tailored, behavioral intervention to manage gestational weight gain [GWG] that adapts to the unique needs and challenges of overweight/obese pregnant women [OW/OBPW] and will utilize control systems engineering to optimize this intervention; in other words, make this intervention manage GWG in OW/OBPW as effectively and efficiently as possible.
The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of contextually tailored activity suggestions and activity planning for increasing physical activity among sedentary adults.
The aim of the PACO (Pedalea y Anda al COlegio) study is to design, implement and examine effects of 3 school-based interventions for promoting active commuting to and from school (hereinafter refered as to school) on transport to school patterns and physical activity levels in Spanish adolescents.
This work aimed to examine the effects of drinking an "energy drink" upon (i) short-term maximal performance, (ii) reaction times and (iii) psychological factors (i.e., mood state, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affective load) and on physiological parameters such as blood pressure, blood glucose, hematological parameters and other biochemical parameters.
An unacceptably high percentage of our nation's low-income, minority youth (< 18 years of age) are not regularly physically active. This contributes to extreme health disparities such as obesity rates nearly two-fold higher than those seen in white youth and greater risk for diabetes and related cardiometabolic disorders. The presence of quality youth physical activity opportunities (YPAO) enables and encourages physically active lifestyles. Unfortunately, quality YPAOs often are lacking in places where minority youth live, resulting in low activity levels and subsequent health issues that represent significant disparities in our society. The investigators' previous research found that small businesses (< 500 employees), which represent over 99% of all employers, are powerful resources for creating and improving YPAOs. In accordance with the Socioecological Model and established philanthropic principles, the investigators developed an alpha version of an intervention (alpha-i) for increasing small businesses' involvement with YPAOs. The investigators are now poised to create a beta version (beta-i) and conduct a pilot study of its impact on small business support for YPAOs and YPAO utilization by youth in low-income, minority neighborhoods. To meet this objective, the investigators will complete the following specific aims. Aim 1: Refine alpha-i components by completing focus groups with small business owners, YPAO providers, and parents/guardians of youth from low-income, predominantly minority neighborhoods. Results of the qualitative analysis will inform final tailoring of the intervention to create the beta-i which will be tested in Aim 2. Aim 2: Determine the effect of the beta-i on small business support for YPAOs in low-income, minority neighborhoods by conducting a plot cluster randomized-control trial with randomization at the neighborhood level. Intervention neighborhoods (n=10) will receive the beta-i while control neighborhoods (n=10) will be provided a standard practice intervention for a period of one year. The primary outcome for aim 2 will be the percentage of small businesses not supporting YPAOs at baseline that subsequently provide support for YPAOs at follow-up. The investigators also will consider the U.S. dollar equivalent of all types of support (monetary, goods/services and time) donated for YPAOs by small businesses. Aim 3: Examine the impact of the increased small business support for YPAOs on YPAO utilization by youth. The primary outcome will be the percent change in the number of youth participating in YPAOs from baseline and follow-up in the treatment and control neighborhoods. The proposed study is significant because it will provide evidence that an easily replicated approach can be used to increase small business support for YPAOs and that this support results in greater use of the YPAOs by youth. The investigators' next step will be to determine if YPAO changes resulting from increased small business support positively influence youth physical activity levels as measured by accelerometry. The investigators long-term goals are to create a nationally implementable practice for increasing support for YPAOs and strengthen the science of addressing health disparities in socially disadvantaged populations.