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Prospective, longitudinal, open label, HIV-2 viral load and antiretroviral resistance informed 2nd-line ARV implementation study.
There is a critical need for safe and effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens for HIV-2 infection. This is especially true in West Africa, where the vast majority of the 1-2 million individuals infected with HIV-2 live and were access to effective ART for HIV-2 is limited. HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (T-20) and mutations conferring broad resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) are frequently observed in HIV-2 from patients receiving ART. Although antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PI) can be used effectively to treat HIV- 2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 also exhibit important differences in their susceptibilities with studies indicating that saquinavir (SQV), lopinavir (LPV), and darunavir (DRV) are the only potent PI's against HIV-2 replication and cross-resistance is frequent. Although an increasing body of evidence supports the potential utility of integrase inhibitors (INI) against HIV-2, there have been no clinical trials to assess their effectiveness and they are not routinely available in resource-limited settings. These limitations present major challenges to HIV-2 treatment, particularly in the areas in which it is most prevalent. This study is the 1st use of STRIBILD (elvitegravir (EVG), cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)), an INI-based single tablet regimen, in HIV-2 infected adults in West Africa. The investigators hypothesize STRIBILD will be safe and effective as ART for HIV-2 infection. The Specific Aims of this study are: AIM 1: A pilot, open label, 48 week trial of STRIBILD (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) in 30 ARV-naïve HIV-2 Infected Adults in Dakar, Senegal. AIM 2: Determination of genotypic and phenotypic HIV-2 antiretroviral resistance in individuals with virologic failure (HIV-2 plasma RNA >250 copies/ml) participating in the 48 week trial of STRIBILD
FIT-2 is a multi-country, phase IIb, randomized, non-comparative study, carried out in West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Togo). ARV-naïve HIV-2 infected adult patients will be recruited and followed during 96 weeks. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 3 first-line treatments in HIV-2 infected adult patients, in West Africa. A treatment will be considered as effective if more than 55% of patients in that arm attain "global success" at 96 weeks.
The HIV-2 is less common ie 1-2 million people in West Africa. HIV-2 does have the same sensibility to antiretroviral treatment (ART) compared to HIV-1. The ART strategies that are appropriate for the HIV-1 infection are not as effective for HIV-2. Classical triple therapy including PI is less effective for HIV-2. Also, the choice of ARTs in a second line treatment is limited. The first line optimal treatment has to be defined by a prospective and randomized evaluation of other strategies. The primary endpoint will be adapted to the specificity of the HIV-2 infection. The 1st step is to define, with a phase II clinical trial, whether a strategy including 2 NRTIs and raltegravir, as an alternative strategy to the classical triple therapy, shows an immunovirological response, at least, as good as the one obtained with the triple therapy. The hypothesis is that the low ART response observed in HIV-2 infection is due to a low virological strength of the ARTs used and that the combination of 2 NRTIs and raltegravir should show a therapeutic success of at least 50% at week 48.