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The primary aim is to perform the largest study worldwide to evaluate novel biochemical and electrocardiographic signatures alone as well as in combination with the standard 12-lead exercise ECG in the detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia (diagnostic endpoint). The secondary aim is to evaluate these innovative tools in the risk prediction for the occurrence of cardiovascular death and acute myocardial infarction during long-term follow-up.
Parkinson´s disease is based on a Lewy body degeneration of cerebral and extracerebral neurons. This Lewy body degeneration includes cerebral cholinergic neurons besides dopaminergic neurons. In previous studies the investigators found that some clinical parkinsonian symptoms - primarily hypokinesia and rigidity - significantly correlate with the dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration which was quantified by dopamine transporter imaging. In contrast to that, resting or postural parkinsonian tremor does not correlate with the dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration. Obviously further cerebral changes - for instance possible changes / degeneration of cerebral cholinergic neurons - contribute to parkinsonian tremor. In this study the investigators apply cerebral 5-IA-85380-SPECT to quantify the local density of cerebral nicotinergic cholinergic receptors in patients with Parkinson´s disease. The investigators will correlate the results of cerebral 5-IA-85380-SPECT with the clinical parkinsonian main symptoms hypokinesia, rigidity and primarily resting and postural tremor. In particular, it is of interest whether changes of cerebral cholinergic neurons are involved in the generation of parkinsonian tremor.