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Clinical Trial Summary

Cryoglobulinaemia is defined as the presence of immunoglobulins in the serum, which reversibly precipitate and form a gel when the temperature drops below 37°C and redissolve upon re-warming. Classification includes three subgroups based on Immunoglobulin (Ig) composition. Type I cryoglobulinaemia consists of only one isotype or subclass of immunoglobulin. Types II and III are classified as mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) because they include both IgG and IgM components. Overall, cryoglobulinaemia is considered a rare disease (<5/10,000 in the general European and North American population), although prevalence is likely to be higher in some areas such as the Mediterranean Basin. MC vasculitis is a multi-organic disease involving kidneys, joints, skin, and peripheral nerves. In type I cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis, searching for an underlying plasma-cell neoplasms is mandatory. Cryoglobulinaemia composed of IgG is more often found in multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammapathy of unknown significance. The course of MC vasculitis varies widely, and the prognosis is influenced by both MC-induced damage to vital organs and co-morbidities associated with underlying diseases. Type I cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a plasma cell associated disorder at the crossroad between autoimmunity and plasma-cell neoplasm. Treatment should be modulated according to the underlying associated disease and the severity of internal organ involvement. The overall 10-year survival after a diagnosis of cryoglobulinaemic syndrome ranges from 50% to 90% in case of renal involvement. The main therapeutic goal must be the cure of the underlying haematological disease (overwhelmingly plasma-cell neoplasms). The most common neoplasias are multiple myeloma (predominantly associated with type I cryoglobulinaemia and hyper-viscosity) in more than 50% of cases. Treating the underlying monoclonal disorder has been associated with improvement/stabilization of cryoglobulinaemic symptoms in most patients with type I cryoglobulinemia, although negativation of serum cryoglobulins was achieved in only half the patients. Alkylating agents and bortezomib are the main therapeutic options, but are associated with side effects including neuropathy. Patients presenting with symptomatic hyperviscosity require urgent therapeutic intervention using plasma exchange or plasmapheresis to remove cryoglobulins from the circulation. There is no standard of care or international guidelines for treatment of type 1 cryoglobulinemia. Isatuximab is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody that has been effective to treat relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Autoreactive plasma cells represent a key player in autoimmune disorders and particularly in type I cryoglobulinemia. Type I cryoglobulinemia is a model of plasma cell associated disorder at the crossroad between autoimmunity and plasma-cell neoplasm. However, rituximab fails to target this population and is poorly effective in this condition. Thus, there is an unmeet need for plasma cell targeted therapy in type I cryoglobulinemia. Clonal plasma cells in type I cryoglobulinemia do express surface CD38, providing a rationale for the use of isatuximab in cryoglobulinemia. Although the biology of the clonal plasma cell in type I cryoglobulinemia is distinct from that of Amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, they are models of hematological diseases associated with monoclonal Ig and whose tumor mass is low. In AL amyloidosis anti-CD38 targeted therapy was highly efficient as monotherapy in treatment naïve patients and relapsers. Thus, Isatuximab represents a highly promising therapy in type I cryoglobulinemia that could be use as monotherapy. This study is a Phase 2 pilot prospective study of 21 patients with type I cryoglobulinemia treated by Isatuximab. Isatuximab will be given intravenously at 10 mg/kg at day 0, week (W)1, W2, W3, and W4 then every 2 weeks for a total of 12 infusions.

Clinical Trial Description


Study Design

Related Conditions & MeSH terms

NCT number NCT05114109
Study type Interventional
Source Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris
Contact David Saadoun, Pr
Phone 673081143
Email [email protected]
Status Not yet recruiting
Phase Phase 2
Start date November 1, 2021
Completion date December 31, 2023

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