There are about 5 clinical studies being (or have been) conducted in French Polynesia. The country of the clinical trial is determined by the location of where the clinical research is being studied. Most studies are often held in multiple locations & countries.
This is a cross-sectional study carried out on a sample of the adult population aged 18 to 69, distributed over the five archipelagos of French Polynesia. Participation in the study involves: agreement to answer a questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and medical history; physical measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and skin pigmentation); and agreement to take biological samples (blood, saliva and stool) for biological, genetic and microbiological analyses. The aim of the study is to assess the current health status of the population of French Polynesia and to evaluate the influence of contextual risk factors (lifestyle, place of residence, history of infection) and intrinsic susceptibility factors (genetics, age, gender, microbiota) in relation to non-communicable and infectious diseases.
Gout is a chronic disease caused by the deposit of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in body tissues secondary to hyperuricemia. Patients with gout suffer severe attacks of acute joint pain. As the disease progresses, the joint pain becomes chronic and associated with disabling and deformative manifestations called tophus. This disease is strongly associated with several comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney failure. Gout is a very common disease, which is affecting 0.9% of the adult population in France and nearly 4% of the North-American population. Data from New Zealand show a particularly high prevalence of gout among Polynesians (minority populations in New Zealand and other islands of the South Pacific) that would be explained by genetic susceptibility and frequently interrelated metabolic diseases. Data on the Polynesian population in New Caledonia suggest prevalence figures close to 7% and prevalence in French Polynesia is assumed to be higher. International genomic studies of gout and hyperuricaemia have identified alleles associated with the occurrence of gout. The aim is to focus on families with several gouty members (numerous in French Polynesia, and geographically clustered) in order to enable the study of individuals with monogenic gout or with a low number of variants (= cases) determining in the occurrence of gout, as well as a non-gouty family member (= controls). Dual-energy CT scan (DECT) allows identification and quantification of UMS crystal deposits in the tissue. The volume of crystals correlates not only with the inflammatory activity of the disease but also with the comorbidities that complicate it. Dual-energy scanning has shown the presence of UMS crystals in some hyperuricemic individuals, which could help to identify those individuals most at risk of developing the disease as they already have the stigma of sub-clinical inflammatory activity.
Gout is a chronic disease caused by the deposit of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in body tissues secondary to hyperuricemia. Patients with gout suffer severe attacks of acute joint pain. As the disease progresses, the joint pain becomes chronic and associated with disabling and deformative manifestations called tophi. Gout is strongly associated with various comorbidities including cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney failure. Gout is a very common disease, affecting 0.9% of the adult population in France and nearly 4% of the North-American population. Data from New Zealand show a particularly high prevalence of gout among Polynesians (minority populations in New Zealand and other islands of the South Pacific) that would be explained by genetic susceptibility and frequently intertwined with metabolic diseases. Recent findings obtained from the Polynesian population in New Caledonia disclose high prevalence figures close to 7%, a level expected to be confirmed by an epidemiology study that will be conducted in parallel with the present study and designed to determine the precise prevalence of gout in French Polynesia and the most frequently associated genetic variants.
Bronchiectasis, defined by an increase in bronchial caliber and thickening of the bronchial wall, is associated with recurrent respiratory infections, chronic cough and bronchorrhea, and a frequent progression to chronic respiratory failure. Investigator distinguish focal bronchiectasis usually resulting from a localized cause and diffuse bronchiectasis which the possible causes are multiple (immune deficiencies, genetic diseases, auto immune pathologies, aspergillosis broncho -allergic lung, sequelae of pulmonary infections).The etiological assessment is negative in 26 to 53% of cases, defining the idiopathic bronchiectasis. However, the discovery of an underlying cause can change the patient's management (up to 37% of cases). Despite the lack of epidemiological data in French Polynesia, Australian and New Zealand studies found a high prevalence of bronchiectasis in Polynesians. Few clinical studies published in the early 1980s suggested a ciliary origin. Due to its geographic characteristics, the Polynesian population constitutes an interesting ethnic group. Indeed, there is a low genetic mixing and the prevalence of certain genetic diseases like the syndrome of Alport or some hereditary retinal dystrophies are high. This type of population is very suitable for discovering new genes in human pathology. Investigator decided to conduct an observational study to find an underlying genetic cause of bronchiectasis in Polynesians by performing a whole exome sequencing. Investigator chose to study index cases defined by an upset of symptoms during the childhood, a family history of idiopathic bronchiectasis, and/or a consanguinity. Investigator also want to study healthy first degree relatives, in order to be able to better identify the clinical significant of DNA variants and focus the analysis on those that may be pathogenic
Dialysis catheters are sites of bacterial proliferation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the use of Taurolock (a catheter lock solution) can prevent bacterial peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.