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NCT ID: NCT00890383 Completed - Clinical trials for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

Colloids in Severe Trauma

Start date: May 2009
Phase: Phase 4
Study type: Interventional

Background: Fluid resuscitation is a cornerstone of the initial management of the critically injured trauma patient yet there are numerous controversies surrounding this very common practice. As a result, these controversies have been the subject of numerous clinical trials, evidence-based guidelines and systematic reviews. With the publication of the landmark SAFE Study the equipoise between the 2 treatments (which were representative solutions for colloid and crystalloids respectively), 4% albumin and saline, was established. This has however been brought into further doubt by the paucity of data on the use of hydroxyethylstarches (HES), which are less costly and have less side effects than albumin, in trauma. More recent findings by Gruen and colleagues have shown that as much as 5% of all trauma deaths are the result of fluid overload based on the North American fluid management model for trauma (pure crystalloid fluid management). A meta-analysis done by Kern and Shoemaker found that supranormal fluid resuscitation with crystalloids is beneficial when given before the onset of organ failure in critically ill surgical patients. Balogh and colleagues found out that when supranormal fuid resuscitation with crystalloids was applied to victims of severe trauma, this resulted in a statistically significant increase in the incidence of mortality, multiple organ failure, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). More recently, Kirkpatrick and colleagues reviewed and defined a 'secondary' ACS as a direct result of fluid resuscitation. They concluded that "excess resuscitation with crystalloid fluids might be harming patients and contributing to an increased occurrence of ACS." This study will serve as a pilot to test the hypothesis that there will be significant differences in clinical outcomes for patients with severe trauma treated with colloid (HES) plus crystalloid and crystalloid only fluid management regimens, most notably the incidence of IAH and ACS. It is hoped that the hybrid colloid (HES) plus crystalloid fluid management regimen will provide a means to avoid the untoward fluid overload and/or other complications of pure crystalloid fluid management and the costs/complications of albumin administration.