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Psychomotor slowing is a major problem in psychosis. Aberrant function of the cerebral motor system is linked to psychomotor slowing in patients, particularly resting state hyperactivity in premotor cortices. A previous clinical trial indicated that inhibitory stimulation of the premotor cortex would reduce psychomotor slowing. The current study is further exploring this effect in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design with three arms of transcranial magnetic stimulation and measures of brain imaging and physiology prior to and after the intervention.
The objectives of this study are to describe characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with schizophrenia newly initiated on 1 of 4 FDA-approved atypical Long Acting Injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (ABILIFY MAINTENA®, ARISTADA®, INVEGA SUSTENNA® or RISPERDAL CONSTA®)
Implementation of 'NAVIGATE' in Ontario aims to help youth and emerging adults suffering from a first episode of psychosis. Although Ontario already has early psychosis intervention programs, the team's recent work has identified major challenges of delivering coordinated care, particularly those elements of care that enhance recovery. These challenges also exist nationally and internationally. By building on the already existing early psychosis intervention community of practice through the Early Psychosis Intervention Ontario Network, the investigators will implement NAVIGATE with the help of CAMH's Provincial System Support Program facilitators. The use of tele-videoconferencing through ECHO Mental Health Ontario and ECHO processes and protocols provide us with an opportunity to ensure sustainability. Using health administrative data held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), the investigators can examine system-level outcomes, including hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient physician visits of youth and emerging adults suffering from a first episode psychosis who are treated with NAVIGATE compared with those treated in early psychosis intervention programs without NAVIGATE and those who are not treated in early psychosis intervention programs. In addition, the investigators can also evaluate health care costs. Prior to initiating this project, the investigators obtained the input of youth and emerging adults with a first episode psychosis and family members. The investigators will also continue to measure engagement across the study. Hypotheses: 1. Following the implementation of NAVIGATE, program fidelity (i.e. adaptability) to the Ontario early psychosis intervention standard will improve. 2. Compared to patients not receiving NAVIGATE, those who receive NAVIGATE through this implementation study will have fewer days in hospital, fewer emergency department visits, fewer suicide attempts, lower mortality, and lower healthcare costs. 3. Improvements in functioning and symptoms will be comparable to the RAISE study (an earlier study assessing NAVIGATE); improvement may be influenced by demographic, socio-economic, geographic, and clinical factors. 4. The project's engagement approach will demonstrate that the investigators used the full range of patient engagement based on objectively assessed engagement metrics.
This is a clinical trial that intend to determine the effects of S-ketamine on event-related potentials associated with semantic affective pain-processing
The aim of the present study is to detect changes in the dopamine system in the brain of patients with schizophrenia, especially when pretreated with antipsychotic medication. Here, the investigators want to find out whether the treatment with these drugs can cause permanent changes in docking points (receptors) of dopamine in the brain. It will be examined whether number and response of dopamine receptors is altered, which are associated with the onset of psychotic symptoms. For this purpose, a single PET/MR measurement will be performed in all participants. In total 140 volunteers, consisting of 30 healthy volunteers, 20 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 90 pretreated patients with schizophrenia will be included over a time period of three years. In addition, the influence of nicotine consumption on dopamine receptors will be invesitgated by comparing data from smoking and non-smoking patients. In clinical practice, an elevation of dopamine action caused by alterations in receptors in the brain is of most importance. This may be the reason why the treatment with antipsychotic agents does not work in some patients. In addition, a permanent elevation of dopamine action is associated with permanent brain alterations by these drugs. The result can contribute to work out valuable indications, whether it makes sense to continue a long term therapy with antipsychotic drugs in a patient. But also the in-depth understanding of the impact of nicotine on the course of therapy can help to open up possibilities for improved drug treatment.
Schizophrenia has a devastating and disproportionate effect on veterans compared to the general US population. Some of the most disabling symptoms, such as low motivation, difficulty expressing emotions, and decreased ability to infer the mental states of others, cause poor social functioning. This means that veterans with schizophrenia have trouble navigating interpersonal interactions and building meaningful relationships in the community. Unfortunately, current antipsychotic medications typically only improve positive symptoms but fail to improve social functioning deficits, which are strong predictors of poor quality of life and functional outcomes. Oxytocin, a peptide found in the brain, plays an important role in social behavior and is known to moderate affiliation, stress, and learning across taxa. In this study, the investigators will test whether oxytocin could be an effective treatment for social functioning deficits in schizophrenia. The investigators will examine changes in brain activation to understand how oxytocin affects behavior and to predict which individuals may benefit from oxytocin treatment.
Neurophysilogical, neuropsychological evaluation and cognitive and physical training
This study will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of AVP-786, as compared with placebo, for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Non-invasive neuromodulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation ( tDCS) , is emerging as an important therapeutic tool with documented effects on brain circuitry, yet little is understood about h ow it changes cognition. In particular, tDCS may have a critical role to play in generalization, that is how training in one domain generalizes to unlearned or unpracticed domains. This problem has resonance for disorders with cognitive deficits, such as schizophrenia. Understanding how tDCS affects brain circuity is critical to the design and application of effective interventions, especially if the effects are different for healthy vs. psychiatric populations. In previous research, one clue to the mechanism underlying increased learning and generalization with tDCS was provided by neuroimaging data from subjects with schizophrenia undergoing cognitive training where increases in thalamocortical (prefrontal) functional connectivity (FC) predicted greater generalization. The premise of this proposal is that increases in thalamocortical FC are associated with the generalization of cognitive training, and tDCS facilitates these increases. The overarching goals of this proposal are to deploy neuroimaging and cognitive testing to understand how tDCS with cognitive training affect thalamocortical circuitry in individuals with and without psychosis and to examine variability in response within both groups. Study 1 will compare right prefrontal, left prefrontal and sham tDCS during concurrent cognitive training over 12 weeks in 90 healthy controls. Study 2 will be similar in all aspects but will examine 90 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and include clinical assessments. Results of the study will provide crucial information about location of stimulation, length of treatment, modeled dosage, trajectory and durability needed to guide future research and interventions for cognitive impairments.
The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of TV-46000. The primary safety and tolerability endpoint is the frequency of all adverse events, including serious adverse events. For new patients, the total duration of patient participation in the study is planned to be up to 80 weeks (including a screening period of up to 4 weeks, a 12-week oral conversion/stabilization stage [Stage 1], a 56-week double-blind maintenance stage [Stage 2], and a follow-up period [8 weeks]). For roll-over patients, the total duration of patient participation in the study is planned to be up to 64 weeks (including up to 56 weeks in the maintenance stage [Stage 2] and a follow-up period [8 weeks]). Patients who started Stage 2 who relapse or meet 1 or more of the withdrawal criteria should be invited to perform the Early Termination visit as soon as possible within 4 weeks of the last injection. Patients who withdraw from the study before completing the 56-week maintenance stage will have follow-up procedures and assessments performed at their follow-up visits. During the follow-up period, patients will be treated according to the investigator's judgment. All subjects will be treated with active drug.