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The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or unexplained infertility have an altered uterine gene expression or uterine microbiome (micro-organism composition) during the window of embryo implantation. Furthermore we would like to assess for women with an abnormal uterine gene expression whether vaginal progesterone medication improves or alters gene expression and for women with an abnormal microbiome whether antibiotic treatment followed by probiotic treatment normalizes the microbiome.
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined as 3 or more pregnancy losses affects approximately 3% of couples trying to achieve parenthood. Most cases of RPL are unexplained and have no effective treatment to improve the chance of a live birth. Exciting indications for using Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) include: Malaria profylaxis and treatment, systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid athritis (RA). HCQ has been reported to have the following properties (anti-thrombotic, vascular-protective, immunomodulatory, improving glucose tolerance, lipid-lowering, and anti-infectious). There is no data concerning the benefit of HCQ in RPL. Administration for other indications provides extensive safety data during pregnancy. This study has the potential to establish support for a new treatment option for unexplained RPL.
50%-60% of the known causes of recurrent pregnancy loss(RPL) are associated with embryonic aneuploidy, such that preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) on embryos acquired by assisted reproductive treatment should improve the rate of pregnancy and live birth in those patients. In dispute though the clinical application of PGS has been, a series of studies show that the new generation of PGS(PGS 2.0), based on blastocyst biopsy followed by whole genome analysis, has significantly improved the clinical outcome of IVF treatment. At present, there is still a need for the evidence of the use of PGS 2.0 in RPL patients, who may benefit from this emerging technology considering the prevalence of genetic abnormalities and the number of transferable embryos in this population. An earlier single center RCT conducted by our IVF center displayed higher implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate calculated by per embryo transfer(ET) cycle in IVF/ICSI+PGS group compared with IVF/ICSI group. This multi-center prospective randomized clinical trial is to provide more data to determine whether the clinical outcomes are significantly improved per treatment cycle such that provide evidence for the application of PGS in RPL patients. Besides, risk factors of PGS outcome are to be analyzed from multi-center data to build a model for prediction of the possible outcomes of PGS and direction of the clinical choice.
Recurrent miscarriage is a pregnancy loss before 20 weeks of gestation. The recurrent pregnancy loss usually occurring in the first trimester of gestation and its rate is quite high (15-20% even in full reproductive period) . In 2012, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Practice Committee issued a statement that defined recurrent pregnancy loss as a disease distinct from infertility defined by two or more failed consecutive pregnancies.
evaluation of the role of ultrasonographic parameters (mean gestational sac diameter, yolk sac diameter, crown rump length, embryonic heart rate and uterine artery Doppler) in predicting early pregnancy failure in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss
Infertility and miscarriage ordinary events in reproductive failure in humans, as are affected one couple in every six couples of reproductive age and abortion is including in approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies. Over the decades since the beginning of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rate still remains below 30% and Recurrent Implantation Failure in one of the most important limiting factor is the assisted reproductive techniques. Determine the causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) can raise the success rate of assisted reproductive techniques and hope infertile couples and reduce psychological pressure on them and also reduce costs is very important. According to studies conducted in recent years one of the most important mechanisms of recurrent miscarriage is maternal immune system because the fetus as an allograft toxic (Semi allograft) to the mother. Studies have demonstrated that ratio of Th1 to Th2 cells increase in maternal peripheral blood cells can be directly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. It also increases the number of Natural killer (NK) cells and Th17 cells and their cytokines in peripheral blood of mother and is also associated with an increased risk of infertility. Several studies have also shown that the fertile persons in compare to infertile have increased amount of Treg cells and inhibitory cytokines associated with it. The studies have shown that if patients are properly selected RPL and placed under appropriate immunotherapy approaches it will be seen a significant increase in fertility. In previous years, followed by the production of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and determine its effect on immune suppression, IVIg uses for the treatment of various diseases such as thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Kawasaki disease and Myasthenia gravis. It is also valuable drug for the treatment of patients with infertility problems have also been used but still remains how well the drug and its mechanism of action are unknown. Probably one of the mechanisms of IVIg is its effect in suppressing the activity of NK cells. Likely IVIg cause to increase Cluster of Differentiation 94 (CD94) molecule as an inhibitor molecule on the NK cells and reduced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. So because of reduce the cytotoxic activity of NK cells by IVIg in patients with RPL injection increases the likelihood of successful pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that the incidence of genetic abnormalities in children who have received immunosuppressive drugs such as IVIg like normal people and normal society. In this study we used IVIg before IVF to suppress the immune system in patients with immunological causes of RPL and the results will be compared with a control group that did not receive any type of drug.
The present study is divided into two groups ,one is the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism who has TPO antibody positive women with TSH concentrations > 2.5 mU/L and below the upper limit of the pregnancy specific reference range ,another is TPO antibody negative with TSH concentrations greater than the pregnancy specific reference range and below 10.0 mU/L.The two groups are randomized into either the LT4 treatment group or control group by the use of a computer-generated list. The aim of our study is to determine whether the use of levothyroxine is beneficial in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism in two groups。
In this clinical cohort study, the investigators are going to observe the efficacy of anti-coagulation and immune therapy in the treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss with a prospective randomized controlled trial.
RSA is a multifactorial disorder resulting from genetic factors, anatomic factors, autoimmune disorders, endocrine dysfunction, thrombophilia, life style factors, and maternal infections. However, the underlying causes remain undetermined in up to 50% of cases. In this clinical cohort study, we intended to get an epidemiological evidence for patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion associated with thrombophilla.
In human, 2% of couples experimented Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Currently, while etiological investigations were performed, 40 to 50 % of RPL were unexplained. In animals' studies, several studies have underlined the importance of sperm quality for a normal embryo development. In human, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that several male risk factors have effects on development (male mediated development toxicology). However, few studies have explored sperm DNA fragmentation on embryo development but after in vitro fertilization. In natural pregnancy only rare studies have been performed but with different populations definitions and different methods of sperm exploration. In this context sperm DNA fragmentation exploration appears justified. The present study purpose to conduct a case - control study in order to research paternal role in RPL.