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This is a Phase I open-label, parallel-group clinical study in healthy term pregnant females undergoing a caesarean section. Two administrations of oxytocin will be tested, after which uterine contractility will be assessed.
The main objective of this project is to assess the average cost of the treatment of bleeding postpartum with recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven®) and compare it to the reference strategy. Costs related to medicine NovoSeven® can generate surplus, but it also avoids in some cases very costly invasive procedures. It will be interesting to compare the average cost of the complete strategies supported.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate that the tranexamic acid (TXA)Intravenous and oral, is equivalent oxytocin (OXY),intramuscularly, in reducing the blood loss in post partum period (mL) in patients at the end of pregnancy ( 37-42 w ) at low risk of post partum hemorrhage (PPH). The PPH means a blood loss equal to or greater than 500 ml after a vaginal delivery (the bleeding is defined severe if it exceeds 1000 mL). PPH is called "primary" when blood loss arose within 24 hours after birth.
The study aims at comparing the roles of carbetocin and oxytocin in the prevention of atonic PPH in women undergoing CS for placenta previa. 200 women will be randomly divided into 2 equal groups using computer generated random numbers, Group 1 will receive Carbetocin 100 µgm (Pabal® Ferring, UK) and group 2 will receive oxytocin 5IU (Syntocinon®, Novartis, Switzerland).
BACKGROUND Around a quarter of all global pregnancy and child-birth related deaths are due to excessive bleeding after the birth of the baby and placenta, or "post-partum haemorrhage" (PPH). In the UK, PPH affects approximately 10% of new mothers. PPH can be extremely frightening for women and can cause them to need additional treatments including blood transfusion and removal of the womb as well as prolonging their hospital stay. The most common cause of PPH is an inadequately contracted womb after childbirth. Giving the mother an injection of "uterotonic" medicine following the birth of their baby can prevent this. It reduces the risk of PPH by 66% and this should routinely be offered to all labouring women. In the UK, the two medicines most commonly used for this purpose are Syntocinon and Syntometrine. Both mimic natural hormones. Syntometrine is longer acting, but a published review of trials comparing these two medicines concluded that Syntometrine is no better at preventing severe blood loss. Syntometrine is associated with more side effects including nausea, vomiting, and high blood pressure, and has been linked with rare, but fatal, cases of stroke. All guidelines therefore recommend Syntocinon for preventing PPH. Our group conducted a telephone survey of all maternity units in the UK, and found that 71.4% of units still routinely use Syntometrine. Investigators estimate that 40,000-70,000 women per year are experiencing distressing nausea and vomiting in the emotionally important first few hours following childbirth. These women are also receiving a medicine with the potential to cause dangerous high blood pressure. Carbetocin is a newer medicine, already widely used after caesarean section, but not yet after vaginal birth. Other studies have shown that Carbetocin is slightly better at preventing bleeding after birth when compared to Syntometrine, that it has fewer side effects than Syntometrine, and that it may be just as good as Syntocinon at preventing PPH. No studies have directly compared all three medicines or compared their overall cost; information vital to the NHS. METHOD Investigators propose a trial of 6285 women over 13 months, in four maternity units in the South-West to compare the effectiveness, side effects and cost of Syntocinon, Syntometrine and Carbetocin, for women having a vaginal birth. Women will be randomly allocated to receive one of these drugs. Women and staff will not know which drug they receive, so as not to influence the results collected. Staff will collect data such as the number of extra drugs and treatments needed and the volume of blood lost. Women will be asked to complete a side effects questionnaire. Investigators will perform an analysis of cost effectiveness once all results are available. AIMS Investigators aim to establish whether Carbetocin is an effective and affordable alternative to Syntocinon and Syntometrine, and whether it has fewer side effects for new mothers. Publication of our results, regardless of what they find, could potentially improve the birth experience of women across the UK, and support the health service in spending its money most effectively.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the combined used of low dose of oxytocin and misoprostol prevent from post partum haemorrhage better than oxytocin or misoprostol alone at cesarean sectionOne hundred fifty women with singleton term pregnancy undergoing elective or emergency lower segment cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were included in this study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups of 50 each. The oxytocin group(group O) received intravenous infusion of 20 units of oxytocin soon after delivery of the neonate and one tablet of placebo sublingually. (20 IU syntocinon dissolved in 1liter of lactated Ringer's solution) at the rate of 1000 ml over a 1h period, immediately after delivery of the neonate ,The misoprostol group (groupM) received 400 µg sublingually and infusion of lactated Ringer ( which one ampoule placebo dissolved it) and the combined misoprostol-oxytocin group(group MO) received 200 µg and 5 iu oxytocin bolus intravenously immediately after delivery of the neonate . The main outcome measures were blood loss at cesarean section, change in hemoglobin levels, need for additional oxytocics and drug related side effects.The volume of blood in the suction bottle was measured, blood soaked sponges and added to volume from suction bottle. Hemoglobin values were determined both before surgery and 24 h following surgery. Hemodynamic variables were recorded every 5 minutes during surgery .The need for additional oxytocic therapy, operating time, infusion volume given intraoperatively, need for blood transfusion, side effects of study drug and any significant puerperal morbidity were also recorded.
Hypothesis A “multifaceted” intervention program aimed at increasing the responsiveness of care givers, the adequacy of care provided, and the efficacy of organisation of care, in presence of abnormal blood loss in the immediate post partum has more impact on the incidence of severe PPH and on the costs of care than the current methods of dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. Intervention Intervention group. The intervention includes three components: (1) outreach visits with local presentation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of PPH, and discussion of their applicability in the context of local organisation; (2) during these educational visits, reminders - check list, “PPH emergency case” containing appropriate materials – to be used in case of PPH, will be proposed; (3) finally, cases of severe PPH will be reviewed during peer review sessions organized in each participating unit, to help identifying weaknesses in care provided, and needs for improvement. Control group. The proposed guidelines for management of PPH will be disseminated through the participating perinatal networks; then each unit will be free to implement them at its own convenience. Randomisation procedure The trial follows a cluster randomised trial design. Randomisation of maternity units will be stratified by region, status (public versus private) and size (annual number of deliveries). The stratified design will guarantee the comparability of the two arms of the trial at baseline. Outcome measures The primary outcome is the incidence of severe PPH (number of severe PPH to number of deliveries). A severe PPH is defined as a PPH that was associated with one or more of the following: peripartum haemoglobin drop greater than 4g/dl, blood transfusion, arterial embolisation, surgical procedures such as hysterectomy or arterial ligation, transfer of the mother to intensive care unit, maternal death. Secondary outcomes include the cost of care and the cost/efficacy ratio, and the incidence of adverse effects of uterotonic drugs.