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The study was designed to assess whether chest shielding during phototherapy reduces the incidence of PDA, as assessed by serial echocardiographic examinations, in a population of extremely preterm infants born at lower 30 week gestation.
The purpose of this pilot trial is to study efficacy and safety of simultaneous intravenous (iv) ibuprofen and paracetamol medications in the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. It is randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1, one center, clinical trial, with an additional open arm.
Early targeted treatment of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) during the first week of life in preterm neonates is often recommended. Our standard first line therapeutic approach is enteral acetaminophen. However many extremely low birth weight infants may be on limited or no feeds when PDA closure is determined to be indicated, thus restricting the use of enteral acetaminophen. Several studies have suggested that intravenous acetaminophen is less effective than enteral. Thus, in this study, we propose to compare two alternative modes of administration when enteral acetaminophen is not an option.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit and can be secondary to prematurity or congenital heart disease (CHD). PDA is the most common cardiovascular abnormality in preterm infants, and is seen in 55% of infants born at 28 weeks, and 1000 grams or less. In addition to producing heart failure and prolonged respiratory distress or ventilator dependence, PDA has been implicated in development of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, interventricular hemorrhage, cerebral ischemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In an Israeli population study 5.6% of all very low birth weight infants (VLBW) were diagnosed with NEC, and 9.4% of VLBW infants with PDA were found to have NEC. In a retrospective analysis of neonates with CHD exposed to Prostaglandin E found that the odds of developing NEC increased in infants with single ventricle physiology, especially hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The proposed pathophysiological explanation of NEC and PDA is a result of "diastolic steal" where blood flows in reverse from the mesenteric arteries back into the aorta leading to compromised diastolic blood flow and intestinal hypo-perfusion. Prior studies have demonstrated that infants with a hemodynamically significant PDA have decreased diastolic flow velocity of the mesenteric and renal arteries when measured by Doppler ultrasound, and an attenuated intestinal blood flow response to feedings in the post prandial period compared to infants without PDA. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has also been used to assess regional oxygen saturations (rSO2) in tissues such as the brain, kidney and mesentery in premature infants with PDA. These studies demonstrated lower baseline oxygenation of these tissues in infants with hemodynamically significant PDA. These prior NIRS studies evaluated babies with a median gestational age at the time of study of 10 days or less. It is unknown if this alteration in saturations will persist in extubated neonates with PDA at 12 or more days of life on full enteral feedings. In the present study the investigators hypothesize that infants with a PDA, whether secondary to prematurity or ductal dependent CHD, will have decreased splanchnic and renal perfusion and rSO2 renal/splanchnic measurements will be decreased during times of increased metabolic demand such as enteral gavage feeding. To test this hypothesis the investigators have designed a prospective observational study utilizing NIRS to record regional saturations at baseline, during feedings, and after feedings for 48 hours.
The purpose of this study is to see if acetaminophen (Tylenol) is as effective as indomethacin in closing patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants.
Estimate the risks and benefits of active treatment versus expectant management of a symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) in premature infants.
This study will evaluate the use of acetaminophen in preterm infants when a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is of concern. We will perform two simultaneous prospective observational studies over a 3 year period. The first will be of infants with clinically significant PDAs beyond 14 days of life who are medically treated with acetaminophen as a means to avoid surgical ligation, and the second will be of infants who received acetaminophen for a PDA closure during the first 2 weeks of life as a result of ibuprofen, the current standard of care in our NICU, contraindication due to medical status.
The proposed research evaluates tissue oxygenation (StO2) as measured by resonance raman spectroscopy (RRS) in premature infants with and without patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). This is a prospective observational study of infants born at < 30 weeks of gestation. The primary aim of this study is to determine if the difference in pre- and post-ductal StO2 as detected by RRS is more significant in premature infants with PDA in comparison to infants without PDA. The secondary aim of this study is to determine if the difference in pre- and post-ductal StO2 as detected by RRS is more significant in infant who develop serious adverse events.
Comparison between the safety and efficacy of oral paracetamol and oral ibuprofen in treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants
Patent ductus arteriosus or PDA is a blood vessel that connects the right and left side of the heart that usually closes after birth but remains open in some premature infants born before 30 weeks' gestation. When this blood vessel remains open for a long time, it may cause problems such as bleeding in the lung and brain, lung injury due to prolonged need of ventilator, and poor kidney function. It sometimes becomes necessary to close this blood vessel in the preterm infant. Currently, this blood vessel can be closed either by medication or surgery. Pain medications such as Ibuprofen and Indomethacin are routinely used medications to close PDA. However, in the last 5 year, acetaminophen has been found as an alternative medication to close PDA in preterm infants. In multiple studies, acetaminophen is found to be a safe alternative medication with lower side effects than current standard management. Intravenous Ibuprofen is approved by FDA to treat PDA in preterm infants. Although not approved by FDA, oral ibuprofen is being used for the management of PDA. However, the success rate of a single medication is approximately 70%. Both medications have been used in the previous clinical studies to treat the same condition in the preterm infants and fewer side effects were reported. Mechanism of both medications to close PDA is different and may work more effectively together than single medication alone. In this study, the investigator are going to use these two medications (Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen) at the same time if the child needs treatment and is eligible to participate in this study. This study is based on the assumption that by using both medications at the same time, investigator can close this blood vessel more effectively than with either drug alone.