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This community-driven study features a mixed-method, participatory design to examine help-seeking behavior and healthcare experiences of American Indian elders in New Mexico, in order to develop and evaluate a tailored intervention to enhance knowledge of, access to, and use of insurance and available services to reduce healthcare disparities. This study includes qualitative and quantitative interviews combined with concept mapping and focus groups with American Indian elders and other key stakeholders.
The purpose of this trial is to establish if several interventions will help women in rural Tanzania access health care services during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. The interventions include education about the importance of attending antenatal care visits with nurses and facility deliveries, a voucher for transport to access the health facility at the time of delivery, and supplies to be used either at the health facility, or on route if the women does not make it to the health facility.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the addition of Proactive Case Detection to Community Case Management will provide an increase in early access to health care and a reduction in deaths among children aged 0-59 months. Integrated Community Case Management is the package of community-based services for children delivered by Community Health Workers (CHW), including diagnosis and treatment of malaria, pneumonia, diarrheal disease and malnutrition. In many iCCM interventions, CHWs are stationed in their villages and available in a passive, reactive manner to provide care to patients who seek them out. This study seeks to determine whether the addition of proactive case detection by CHWs to a standard iCCM intervention (ProCCM), in which they conduct daily door-to-door home visits to find and care for patients, will improve early access to care and reduce child mortality. Village-clusters will be randomised to receive Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) from a passive CHW or Proactive Community Case Management (ProCCM) from a CHW that conducts daily active case finding home visits. All villages in both study arms will receive additional interventions that could significantly reduce under-five mortality, including removal of point-of-care fees, clinical staff training at primary health centres, and improvement in primary health centre infrastructure. All women of reproductive age eligible for inclusion in the study will be surveyed at baseline, and again at 12, 24 and 36 months. The study hypothesis is a significant reduction in child mortality in both study arms, with a significantly larger reduction where there is proactive case detection, or ProCCM, by CHWs. A survey of all women enrolled in the three-year study (eligible and consenting) has 82% power to detect an absolute difference in under-five mortality of 0.75% (a relative difference of 25%) between the two study arms.