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The development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its application for in vivo imaging has opened entirely new opportunities in ophthalmology. The technology allows for both noninvasive visualization of the morphology and measurement of functional parameters within ocular tissues to a depth of a few millimetres even in nontransparent media. Until now the resolution of commercially available OCT systems is, however, much lower than that provided by light microscopy. Recently, an ultrahigh-resolution OCT system was developed by our group providing resolutions of 1.7 and 17 µm in axial and lateral direction, respectively. This axial resolution is about four times better than that provided by standard OCT systems. It allows to perform in vivo imaging with a resolution close to biopsy of tissue and to visualize structures of the anterior eye segment with a remarkable richness of detail. The prototype was applied for in vivo imaging of the cornea including the precorneal tear film. The goal of the planned pilot study is to apply this innovative imaging modality for visualization of the ultrastructure of the different parts of the anterior eye segment structures in diseased subjects, as well as in patients who underwent minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). The obtained in vivo cross sectional images and three-dimensional data sets are hoped for contributing to the knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of the corresponding tissues. This could allow for a better interpretation of clinical features and findings obtained in slit lamp examination.