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The purpose of this study is to determine whether personalized titanium plates can achieve better accuracy than CAD/CAM surgical splint in maxilla repositioning in orthognathic surgery, and evaluate the feasibility of this technique in clinical application.
Background: - Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Eating fruits and vegetables with chemicals called flavonoids may protect against heart disease and improve blood flow to the heart. They are found in blackcurrant berries. Oils found in fish and mussels called omega-3 fats have also been shown to protect the heart. Researchers want to know if blackcurrant extract and omega-3 fats can improve blood flow, which may increase blood to the heart. They also want to learn about the health of blood vessels and how the heart works. Objective: - To learn if blackcurrant extract and omega-3 fats will improve blood flow and make the heart beat stronger. Eligibility: - Healthy adults 55 to 75 years old. Design: - Participants will be screened with medical history, physical exam, and blood tests. - Visit 1 will take 6 7 hours. - Participants will have physical exam and blood and urine tests. - A small device like a microphone will be placed on their arm to take pictures of blood vessels. A blood pressure cuff will be tightened on their arm and more pictures will be taken. - Blood pressure cuffs will be placed on their arms and legs. They will be tightened at the same time and blood pressure will be measured. - Participants will answer questions about their eating and exercise. - Every 8 weeks, participants switch from taking blackcurrant and/or omega-3 tablets to a placebo to no tablets. <TAB> - Every 8 weeks, they will have another shorter clinic visit that will repeat most of visit 1.
The overall significance of this study is to develop a laboratory developed test (LDT) to use a new marker in the maternal blood to better identify pregnancies that have a child with a chromosome abnormality such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Edward's syndrome (trisomy 18), Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), Klinefelter syndrome, (47, XXY), and other chromosome abnormalities. Accomplishing that task would reduce the need for invasive amniocentesis and CVS procedures.
Effective treatment and prevention strategies for childhood stroke and porencephaly can only be developed once the causes are understood. There is increasing evidence that inherited and acquired coagulation abnormalities alone or in combination with environmental factors, predispose to arterial and venous thrombosis. Inherited abnormalities of factor V Leiden, prothrombin, protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III may account for many of these thromboses. At present there is little information on the existing distribution of these coagulation anomalies in children with thrombosis. Recent reports also suggest that these clotting abnormalities may be responsible for some instances of intracranial hemorrhage, porencephaly, cerebral palsy and fetal death. This study will measure the frequency of several coagulation factor abnormalities (factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210A, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, and antiphospholipid antibodies) in children with a history of porencephaly and stroke, and will compare these to the prevalence of these mutations in population controls and family members. We will also describe the exogenous conditions which in concert with these coagulation factors, may have led to the development of thrombosis in these children....
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a genetic disorder (autosomal recessive) caused by an abnormality in the production of cholesterol. The disorder can occur in both a "mild" or "severe" form. SLOS is associated with multiple birth defects and mental retardation. Some of the birth defects include; abnormal facial features, poor muscle tone, poor growth, shortened life span, and abnormalities of the heart, lungs, brain, gastrointestinal tract, limbs, genitalia, and kidneys. There is no known cure for SLOS but recently patients have been treated with increased amounts of cholesterol in their diet. The cholesterol in a persons diet is unable to correct the abnormalities in the patient's organs, but researchers hope it will improve growth failure and mental retardation. This study was developed to answer questions about the causes and complications of SLOS, as well as the effectiveness of cholesterol treatment. The study will enroll patients diagnosed with SLOS, and their mothers. The objectives of the study will be to address the following questions: 1. <TAB> What is the prognosis / natural history of the demyelination in the nervous system of patients with SLOS? 2. <TAB> Do patients with SLOS have other problems concerning the function of their endocrine systems? 3. <TAB>What are the genetic make-ups of patients with SLOS? 4. <TAB>Can further studies of cholesterol metabolism and genetic testing, using SLOS fibroblasts, increase the understanding of SLOS?<TAB>
The purpose of this research is to study a new way to test for chromosome abnormalities. Chromosomes are strands of DNA (the genetic material in the cell nucleus) that are made up of genes-the units of heredity. Chromosome abnormalities are usually investigated by staining the chromosomes with a dye (Giemsa stain) and examining them under a microscope. This method can detect many duplications and deletions of pieces of chromosomes and is very accurate in diagnosing certain abnormalities. It is not useful, however, for identifying very small abnormalities. This study will evaluate the accuracy of a test method using 24 different dyes for finding small chromosome abnormalities. Children and adults with various chromosome abnormalities may be eligible for this study, including, for example, people with developmental delay or mental retardation, abnormal growth features or growth retardation, and certain behavioral disorders. Participants will be evaluated in the clinic over a 1- to 3-day period, depending on their symptoms. All participants will be examined by a genetics specialist and will have a physical examination and possibly X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound studies and medical photography. Blood will be drawn for chromosome testing-about 3 tablespoons from adults and 1 to 3 teaspoons from children. When the test results are available, participants will return to the clinic for follow-up evaluation and review of the test findings. The genetic and medical evaluations, along with their implications, will be discussed.
There is a variety of tumors affecting the pituitary gland in childhood; some of these tumors (eg craniopharyngioma) are included among the most common central nervous system tumors in childhood. The gene(s) involved in the pathogenesis of these tumors are largely not known; their possible association with other developmental defects or inheritance pattern(s) has not been investigated. The present study serves as a (i) screening/training, and, (ii) a research protocol. As a screening and training study, this protocol allows our Institute to admit children with tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit to the pediatric endocrine clinics and wards of the NIH Clinical Center for the purposes of (i)<TAB>training our fellows and students in the identification of genetic defects associated with pituitary tumor formation, and (ii)<TAB>teaching our fellows and students the recognition, management and complications of pituitary tumors As a research study, this protocol aims at (i)<TAB>developing new clinical studies for the recognition and therapy of pituitary tumors; as an example, two new studies have emerged within the context of this protocol: (a) investigation of a new research magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tool and its usefulness in the identification of pituitary tumors, and (b) investigation of the psychological effects of cortisol secretion in pediatric patients with Cushing disease. Continuation of this protocol will eventually lead to new, separate protocols that will address all aspects of diagnosis of pituitary tumors and their therapy in childhood. (ii)<TAB>Identifying the genetic components of pituitary oncogenesis; those will be investigated by (a) studying the inheritance pattern of pituitary tumors in childhood and their possible association with other conditions in the families of the patients, and (ii) collecting tumor tissues and examining their molecular genetics. As with the clinical studies, the present protocol may help generate ideas for future studies on the treatment and clinical follow up of pediatric patients with tumors of the pituitary gland and, thus, lead to the development of better therapeutic regimens for these neoplasms....