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Combined estrogen and progestin therapy has been shown to increase mammographic density and incidence of breast cancer in randomized trials. We propose to examine the effects of now commonly used low-dose combined hormone therapy (HT) regimens on breast density, rates of abnormal mammogram, and circulating estrogens in the ongoing, already-funded Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). KEEPS is a randomized clinical trial with a primary goal of examining the effects of low-dose transdermal versus oral estrogen combined with cyclic micronized progesterone on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in recently menopausal women. Prior studies of low-dose HT have been of short duration and small size. By determining the effects of low-dose hormone therapy on the breast, the proposed ancillary study will add important information about the estimated balance of risks and benefits associated with low-dose HT and will help guide future research trials.