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Clinical Trial Summary

Outcomes for patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who are refractory to first-line immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and who lack a matched unrelated donor (MUD) remain poor. Recently, the use of eltrombopag (ELT) has shown blood count improvements in 40% of these patients. However, most refractory patients do not respond to ELT or other second-line treatment and are therefore exposed to life-threatening infections, and bleeding. During the past 2 decades, there has been a significant decrease in infection-related mortality in patients with SAA unresponsive to initial IST but clonal evolution including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still occur in the long-term with a grim prognosis. Overall, the overall survival of such patients with acquired refractory SAA to ELT is about 60-70% at 2 years. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using alternative donor sources (i.e., mismatched unrelated donors, cord blood (CBT), and haplo-identical family donors) may be curative in patients with refractory SAA, despite carrying much higher rates of complications than in transplantations from matched related or unrelated donors. Recently, our group showed that CBT is a valuable curative option for young adults with refractory SAA. However, not all patients have available CB and CBT treatment related mortality is high in adult patients. Haploidentical (haplo) related donor Stem Cell Transplantation (haplo-SCT) have improved dramatically outcomes using T-cell replete grafts with administration of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Preliminary results in a little number of patients with refractory SAA at Kings college (London, UK) and John Hopkins (Baltimore, USA) seem promising. The investigators retrospectively analyzed data from 36 patients (median age 42 years) transplanted between 2010 and 2017 in Europe on behalf of the SAA working party of the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation group. The 1-year overall survival was about 80% suggesting that this approach might be a valid option in this particular poor clinical situation. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate a benefit in term of the 2-year overall survival rate from 60% (historical rates in patients with acquired refractory idiopathic aplastic anemia) up to 80% using haplo-SCT with PTCy.


Clinical Trial Description

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NCT number NCT05126849
Study type Interventional
Source Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris
Contact Regis Peffault de Latour
Phone +33142385073
Email [email protected]
Status Not yet recruiting
Phase Phase 2
Start date November 25, 2021
Completion date November 25, 2026