Fluid Assessment by Doppler us Changes Clinical Trial
Assessment of Volume Status by Doppler Ultrasound to Predict Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients
Fluid are used to increase cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) .Fluid is an important line of therapy that needed in shocked patient, hypovolemic and following surgery to correct the volume state and avoid acute kidney injury. However, excess fluid administration may be harmful leading itself to increase rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), prolonged days of mechanical ventilation and death . Excess fluid administration may increase right and left atrial pressure leading to congestion and edema.
Increasing cardiac output more than 15% following fluid administration was used as fluid responsiveness method by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines. However, these strategies may promote over-resuscitation as most recommend continuing fluid administration until the patients are no longer VR. VR-based strategies do not assess elevations in right atrial pressure (RAP) or assess for venous congestion which could occur earlier. The elevations of left atrial pressure can be seen clinically with hypoxia, cephalization on chest X-ray and B-lines on ultrasound resulting from pulmonary edema, while the elevation in right-sided pressure is much more difficult to detect. It is possible that rightsided venous flow changes detect clinically important elevations in right atrial pressure that lead to venous congestion and end organ injury . Doppler flow patterns of hepatic veins (HV), portal vein (PV) and intra-renal veins (RV) are noninvasive and accurately identify early stages of right-sided venous congestion in patients who have cardiac dysfunction and congestive heart failure with elevated right atrial pressures . If HV, PV and RV can be validated as reliable measures of elevated RAP, such indicators might have utility in modulating fluid resuscitation in other critically ill patient populations. ;