Behavioural and Psychiatric Symptoms of Dementia Clinical Trial
Effectiveness of Home-based Family Caregiver-delivered Aromatherapy Programme for the Management of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for Older Persons With Dementia
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is the most prominent and distressing manifestation for older persons with dementia (PWD) and caregivers. Aromatherapy was a potentially safe and effective non-pharmacological strategy in BPSD management and could provide benefits to PWD and caregivers. In Hong Kong, some Residential Care Homes for the Elderly and day care centres have provided aromatherapy service to the PWD receiving service from them. However, no such service was provided to the community-dwelling PWD living at home, which constitute a larger proportion of dementia population in HK. In addition, there is no clear implementation protocol, or formal training to the family caregivers to deliver aromatherapy to PWD in home-based setting. Therefore, this study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based family caregiver-delivered aromatherapy programme for the management of BPSD. PWD ≥ 60-year-old, with BPSD symptoms, and living at home, as well as their family caregivers will be recruited. Participants who pass the screening are randomly allocated to intervention or control group. Those in the intervention group receive home-based aromatherapy programme. Those in the control group receive no intervention for 3-week control period, and then receive home-based aromatherapy programme. The outcome measures will be conducted at baseline and after the 3-week intervention/control period by using Chinese versions of Neuropsychiatric Inventory (CNPI), Chinese version of Dementia QoL Measure-Proxy (C-DEMQoL-Proxy), and Chinese version of Zarit Burden Interview (CZBI).
Study Aim and Objectives: This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based family caregiver-delivered aromatherapy programme for the management of BPSD. The objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme in improving PWD's severity of BPSD symptoms and QoL, and decreasing family caregivers' distress and burden. Study Design and Setting: This study is a RCT with two-armed single-blinded parallel design conducted in the participants' homes. Intervention Group: Home-based Aromatherapy Programme After baseline assessment, an evidence-based theory-driven home-based aromatherapy programme will be conducted in intervention group. Control Group: Wait-list Control After baseline assessment, no intervention will be provided to the control group for a 3-week control period. Afterwards, individualised face-to-face training will be provided to the family caregivers, and aromatherapy materials will be provided for delivering home-based aromatherapy intervention on PWD. Study Outcomes: The primary outcome is the change in PWD's severity of BPSD symptoms. The secondary outcomes are the changes in PWD's QoL, and family caregivers' distress and burden. Process Evaluation: Process evaluation will be performed in intervention group by: 1. Skill assessment checklist is used to assess the family caregivers' competence in delivering aromatherapy. 2. Logbook is used to monitor the adherence to the programme. 3. Regular consultation with consultation record form is used to monitor the feasibility, acceptance, and any adverse effect and perceived barriers to the intervention. 4. 15-20 minutes semi-structured individual interview with an interview guide to family caregivers after intervention is used to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and perceived benefit and limitation of the programme. Data Analysis Plan Analysis of Quantitative Data: The normality of continuous variables will be assessed by using z-test for skewness and kurtosis. Skewness and kurtosis statistics are less reliable in sample size of less than 300 because they could not adjust the standard error; therefore, z-test will be applied for normality test using skewness and kurtosis. The homogeneity of the baseline data between the intervention and control groups, and between the participants who have completed the study and those do not, will be analysed using independent-sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test depending on the type and normality of the data. The outcome variables are expressed as continuous variables. The differential changes of outcomes between groups and across time will be evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Analysis of Qualitative Data: The qualitative data will be analysed by conventional content analysis. They will be read repeatedly to derive codes. The codes will then be sorted into different subcategories by inductive method. Then, the subcategories will be combined to form categories based on the relationships between subcategories. Finally, all the categories, subcategories and codes will be determined after discussion within the research team. ;
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