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This research study is a sub-study within the Behavioral Activation for Smoking Cessation and the Prevention of Post-Cessation Weight Gain main study (NCT02906787). Participants who are eligible for the main study and meet certain MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) related study criteria (i.e. conditions) may also elect to complete a series of computer tasks inside a standard, closed MRI scanner to examine changes in brain activity associated with the smoking cessation counseling that participants will receive in the main study. In total, participants will be asked to complete 2, one-hour fMRI scans: 1 before completing their first counseling session and 1 during the final 7 days of the scheduled 8-week nicotine patch treatment period.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects one fifth of Singaporean pregnancies and can result in short and long term complications for mother and child. Mobile applications are effective in improving diabetes care and weight related behaviors through improved self-management. A multidisciplinary healthcare team from National University Hospital, Singapore has worked with Jana Care to develop the Habits-GDM smartphone app, a lifestyle coaching program specific for gestational diabetes. It consists of interactive lessons to provide patient education, diet, activity and weight tracking tools, messaging platform for coaching and motivating patients towards healthy behavior beneficial for gestational diabetes. It interfaces with the Aina device, a novel hardware sensor that plugs into any smartphone and can be used for glucose monitoring. This study aims to test the effectiveness of this app in preventing excessive weight gain in pregnancy among patients with gestational diabetes.
In this protocol, the investigators propose a randomised controlled trial to explore the effects of intra-nasal oxytocin administration on appetite regulation. The investigators will run a cross-over design with 60 healthy adult men.
Obesity is the 5th leading cause of global death, and is major risk factors for many chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and cancer. Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, and it is widely agreed to be a consequence of a gene by environment interaction. Although on average obesity rates are increasing, the shape of the distribution of adiposity is changing: it is becoming more right skewed. This is because there is a population of very lean subjects that has remained almost unchanged by the epidemic. The investigators have called these very lean individuals that are resistant to the epidemic and sustain a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 'super lean' subjects. We have very little understanding of the lifestyles of these individuals and how they are able to maintain their super lean phenotype, and whether the basis of their leanness is primarily genetics.
The aim of this pilot study is to conduct a dietary intervention for overweight (body maas index BMI≥25) and obese (BMI≥30) pregnant women in two maternity care clinics and explore the effect of the intervention on gestational weight gain and the prevalence of gestational diabetes between the intervention and control groups.
The study aims to randomize 400 participants to 1 of 3 arms: a) a weight stability intervention prior to smoking cessation (Group 1); b) a weight loss intervention prior to smoking cessation (Group 2); or c) a self-guided weight management prior to cessation (Group 3) and to determine the efficacy of the interventions on preventing weight gain at 12 month follow-up. All 3 conditions receive a highly efficacious behavioral smoking cessation program and 6 months of varenicline pharmacotherapy (ChantixTM), the most efficacious medication for smoking cessation.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reference ranges and rates of gestational weight gain among Chinese pregnant women, and to analyze the correlation between gestational weight gain and adverse outcomes.
The investigators propose a maltodextrin-controlled cross over experimental medicine study that aims to examine the role of the immune system in cognitive processes and weight gain in 40 adult patients with psychosis, stable on antipsychotic medication for over 1 month. There is evidence suggesting the immune system is linked to brain function and weight gain, both parameters that has been implicated in psychosis and antipsychotic use, and may underlie some schizophrenic features. The fermentation of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), which are short chain carbohydrates composed mostly of galactose sugar molecules, by the intestinal microbiota has been shown to modulate the immune system and reduce the inflammatory response in both animals and humans. Since the intestinal ecosystem is highly sensitive to dietary changes, the growth of beneficial gut bacteria can be enhanced using a natural food supplement similar to GOS known as prebiotics. The study will be controlled by taking maltodextrin as a control supplement. Both prebiotics and maltodextrin are short chain sugar compounds. The study will involve asking patients to take dietary supplement for a total of 24 weeks; GOS for 12 weeks and maltodextrin for 12 weeks as a control. Participants will be randomised into groups, with half receiving maltodextrin followed by GOS, and half receiving GOS followed by maltodextrin. Participants will be assessed on cognitive function and weight gain at 3 specified time points.
Evaluation of current and newly developed endoluminal therapies in the management of Upper and Lower GI conditions.
To assess the association of the number of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) consultations and eating behavior (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) with GWG in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).