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The objective of the proposed study is to enroll women with obesity that will undergo a controlled, energy restricted feeding intervention to test the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on adipose distribution and circulating testosterone during weight loss.
This is a large and comprehensively phenotyped cohort with fasting glycaemia where the predictive value of body composition and anthropometric measures of total and central fat distribution for postprandial carbohydrate intolerance are studied.
Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is an urgent need to find better strategies to promote physical activity in the community. The present study will invite 70-year-olds with central (abdominal) obesity to participate in a 10-week aerobic exercise program. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two equally large groups. The first group will complete the exercise program in instructor-led groups. The second group will complete the program at home with the help of an on-line video.
The investigators propose to undertake a controlled dietary intervention study in UAE subjects with visceral obesity to examine the feasibility of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and/or whole-grain fiber in the UAE population. The research will also investigate the longer-term influence of increased fruits, vegetables and fiber consumption on health and its capacity to sustain lifestyle change.
In line with improvements in oncologic outcome for patients with esophageal cancer, the attritional impact of curative treatment with respect to functional status and health-related quality of life (HR-QL) in survivorship is increasingly an important focus. Functional recovery after surgery for esophageal cancer is commonly confounded by anorexia and early satiety, which may reduce oral nutrient intake with consequent malnutrition and weight loss. One in three disease-free patients has more than fifteen percent body weight loss at three years after esophagectomy. The ESPEN Special Interest Group on cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases has defined sarcopenia as skeletal muscle index (SMI) of ≤39 cm2/m2 for women and ≤55cm2/m2 for men, while similar cut-off points have been validated in upper gastrointestinal and respiratory malignancies (less than 38.5 cm2/m2 for women and 52.4 cm2/m2 for men). The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) additionally recommends that assessment should also include determination of muscle function, for example gait speed or grip strength, where possible. The presence of sarcopenia is associated with increase treatment-associated morbidity, impaired HR-QL, reduced physical and role functioning, and increased pain scores in older adults. In addition, a previous longitudinal study demonstrated that the decline in HR-QL over a six year period in older adults was accelerated in the presence of sarcopenia. As such, sarcopenia may represent a modifiable barrier to recovery and subsequent retention of HR-QL and functional status, and may reinforce a persistent illness identity, among patients following potentially curative treatment for esophageal cancer.
This study evaluates the effect of intermittent calorie restriction versus continued calorie restriction on weight loss, gene expression profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution.
While perirenal fat measurement is an easy reproducible surrogate of visceral fat, its value as independent parameter in predicting postoperative complications after colorectal resection remains poorly investigated. The investigators want to test the value of perirenal fat as surrogate of visceral obesity as risk factor for morbidity in colorectal surgery and to compare it to the effect of Body mass index (BMI) and Waist- Hip ratio (WHR).
We aimed to risk faoctors for GERD and association between visceral obesity, plasma adipoline(leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α)and development of reflux esophagitis in healthy Koreans.
Although it is frequently mentioned in the media that overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions worldwide and in this country, some Canadians are perplexed and sometimes confused about the role of obesity in diabetes and heart disease. In fact, the investigators even hear from time to time that there could be "healthy" obese individuals. In clinical practice, assessment of obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a challenge as even some physicians are confused. However, studies conducted in our laboratory and by other research teams around the world over the last 20 years have clearly shown that body shape is more important than body size when evaluating the risk of overweight/obesity and that high accumulation of abdominal fat (excess belly fat) increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The investigators now need to better understand the link between excess belly fat and atherosclerosis (the thickening of artery walls by fatty deposits, also referred to as atherosclerotic plaque), leading to complications such as angina (chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attacks). Using non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, the investigators therefore propose to examine the relationships between measures of fatness and of abdominal fat and the size of atherosclerotic plaque in large blood vessels of apparently healthy human subjects. This study is also a unique opportunity to look, for the first time, at the relationship between belly fat, blood sugar, several well-known risk factors for heart disease (cholesterol, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, etc.) and the size of atherosclerotic plaques. This research program should pave the way to the development of new improved preventive/therapeutic approaches focusing not on body weight but rather on abdominal fat and associated blood abnormalities which are predictive of the development of atherosclerotic plaques leading to the premature development of heart disease.
The metabolic risks associated with obesity are closely correlated with central (abdominal), rather than a peripheral (gluteofemoral) fat pattern It has been shown that weight loss after bariatric surgery is followed by metabolic improvements. The amount of fat lost from each site may be independently regulated. Very scant information is found in the literature regarding the relative changes in different fat body compartments, and their effect on the improvement of the metabolic profile. In this study we define the absolute and relative changes in the different adipose tissue compartment after weight loss surgery