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In recent years, the lysine analogs tranexamic acid (TXA) has gained wide use in cardiac surgery as a blood-sparing agent. However, the safety of the drug and its impact on overall outcomes of cardiac surgery remains debated. The current study evaluates the dose effect of TXA on the incidence of deep venous thrombus (DVT) in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Also, the dose effect of TXA on bleeding and allogeneic transfusion is evaluated.
Blood clots occurring in the legs and in the lungs are relatively common; they occur in around 3 in a 1000 people per year. They can cause disability and are also potentially life threatening. When a clot occurs in the legs it is called a deep vein thrombosis or DVT. When they occur in the lungs they are called a pulmonary embolism or PE. The risk for DVT and PE is higher in people with conditions which cause inflammation. The most common of these are inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis (a condition comprised of psoriasis and joint inflammation). What is not known is how much higher the risk of DVT and PE is in these groups compared with people without inflammatory disease, and what causes the excess risk in these people. This study aims to assess the measure the exact increase in risk for DVT and PE in people with these inflammatory conditions and to identify which risk factors are most strongly associated with the increased risk. These data should help with an understand the causes of blood clot risk in these inflammatory conditions and in identify targets for reducing risk.
Acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation (STEMI) is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the presence of thrombus in STEMI patients has been linked to adverse outcomes, routine thrombus aspiration has not been proven effective. A potential explanation could be that patients with STEMI should be risk-stratified. Thus, a more personalized approach in treating these patients is stressfully required. This proposal aims to establish the required interdisciplinary infrastructure for developing a risk-stratification model by implementing clinical, laboratory and angiographic data with molecular knowledge obtained by using innovative technologies, such as data from nano/micro-Computed tomography and circulating microRNAs. Two hundred consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing thrombus aspiration will be enrolled in the study and will be followed-up for one year for Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The proposed approach will shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms and broaden the investigator's understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions in the STEMI setting that, along with clinical parameters, affect patient outcomes. Furthermore, it will enable the identification of certain circulating micro-RNAs as cardiovascular disease biomarkers and it will help clinicians to better stratify the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk of patients with STEMI. As part of the work, important characteristics of aspirated thrombi will be assessed for the first time (such as volume, density and shape) and will be linked to patient outcomes. All this information will be incorporated into one in-vitro model, which will be developed using bioprinting and microfluidics methodologies. The in-vitro model will facilitate: (i) the in-depth exploration of the pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with STEMI; and (ii) the therapeutic optimization of innovative nanocarriers/nanomedicines with thrombolytic efficacy. Clearly, the study improves personalized cardiovascular medicine approaches, by considering individual patient clinical assessment in a way that empowers the precision in diagnosis and therapy.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate a new radiotracer called 64Cu-FBP8 for PET-MR imaging of thrombosis. The tracer has the potential of detecting thrombosis in the left atrial appendage of patients with atrial fibrillation, thereby may provide a non-invasive alternative to the current standard-of-care, transesophageal echocardiography.
The overall incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is 1 per 200 cancer patients, about 5 times higher than in the general population. These events are of crucial importance, since nearly 10% of cancer patients die from thromboembolic events (EVT), making them the second leading cause of death in this population. In hospitalized patients, the rates seem to have increased between 1979 and 1990 from 0.6% - 2% before 1990 to 4% since 1990. Some studies report an increase in the hospitalization cost of 38%, correlated in part with the increase in hospitalization duration related to venous thromboembolism. Thrombotic risk in cancer patients is known and identified. Thrombotic complications affect the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. Scores were established and validated to establish this risk and to propose prophylaxis in these patients. Guidelines exist for prophylaxis and for the treatment of these patients. Chemotherapy is a regular generator of cytopenia, the most prominent of which is thrombocytopenia. In addition, a prospective study of 107 cancer patients in our institution shows that almost 40% of patients over 65 years of age take anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. In this specific population (i.e., with cancer and hypocoagulability), the occurrence of thrombosis poses particular problems. The prevalence and incidence of venous thrombosis in this situation is unknown and the behavior to be poorly specified. Based on these considerations, we propose a two-year prospective cohort study to explore the biological parameters of hypocoagulability and to assess the incidence and prevalence of DVT in thrombocytopenic patients on vitamin K antagonists. (AVK), anti platelet aggregation (AGP) and / or direct oral anticoagulant (AOD). In this study we mean by hypocoagulability any situation modifying the normal coagulation system, that is to say: - the presence of any anti-coagulant or antiplatelet treatment, - or abnormalities of primary or secondary hemostasis causing coagulation disorders.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare autoimmune disease (annual incidence: 3-4/105 inhabitants) leading to an increased risk of spontaneous bleeding. ITP is said "primary" when not associated to other systemic disease (lymphoma, systemic autoimmune disease, chronic infectious disease…). First-line treatment is based on corticosteroids. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is added in case of serious bleeding. In about 70% of adult cases, ITP becomes persistent or chronic (lasting >3 months and >12 months, respectively). Second-line treatments are then indicated. Among them, thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (TPO-RAs), romiplostim and eltrombopag are increasingly used. Splenectomy is used as ultimate treatment. Paradoxically, the risk of thrombosis is higher in ITP patients in comparison with the general population, due to the release of young hyperactive platelets from bone marrow. The incidence of thrombosis in ITP patients has been estimated between 0.5 and 3/100 patients-years. However, risk factors for thrombosis in ITP are not known, except splenectomy that is used in very few patients now. The role of other ITP treatments in thrombosis occurrence has been evoked, particularly for corticosteroids and IVIg. TPO-RAs have been associated with a risk of thrombosis in clinical trials and pharmacovigilance studies, even in case of low or normal platelet count. However, this risk has not been measured in the real-life practice, adjusted for other risk factors for thrombosis.
This study aims at evaluating the implementation of clinical-pharmacist-led anticoagulation stewardship program in Egyptian tertiary hospital to promote a culture of safety around anticoagulants.
Number, type and incidence of adverse events/suspected adverse drug reactions in patients treated with apixaban, according to therapeutic indications approved in Mexico.
Hospitalized patients are at risk of developing blood clots in the legs (Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT), which can lead to death if those clots break off and migrate to the lungs. We know that if there is a blood clot in the large leg veins near the hips and in the thighs, treating these patients with high-doses of blood thinners reduces the risk of these deaths. It is unclear if treating blood clots in the calf with high doses of blood thinners is better than using low doses. In this study, after being diagnosed with a blood clot in the calf, patients will be treated with either low dose or high dose enoxaparin (Lovenox), a blood thinner. We will then see if low dose blood thinner has similar results as high dose blood thinner.
Asian populations have a lower rate of high-risk gene mutations of venous thrombosis, which means a reasonable perioperative anticoagulant management after hip or knee arthroplasty for Caucasian populations may be too excessive for Asians. So, individual patient risk assessment, rather than a "blanket policy", is considered the best thromboembolism prophylaxis for Asians.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of selective thromboembolism prophylaxis compared with conventional thromboembolism prophylaxis by risk stratification with thromboelastography (TEG) after joint arthroplasty for Asian populations.