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It is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on Obstetric Practice that all obstetricians screen each women for postpartum depression and anxiety with a validated instrument. Although much effort is made, the contributing factors still lack in the literature due to its multi-factorial nature and complexity. In addition, the effects of prenatal education classes remain understudied. Therefore, this study aims to demonstrate the prevalence, characteristics and contributing factors of the postpartum depression. In addition, the change in prevalence and characteristics of the postpartum depression among women who had prenatal classes and not will also be assessed.
We will enroll 40 mother-infant dyads in a randomized trial exploring the effect of distribution of pacifiers during the birth hospitalization to mothers at high risk for postpartum depression on pacifier use, infant feeding, and maternal stress.
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 20% of women and has profound effects on women and their families. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that the majority of women with PPD receive psychotherapy. The purpose of this pilot study is to successfully adapt and deliver a 1-day CBT workshop for depression to women with PPD, establish the feasibility of a study protocol, and generate an estimate of the treatment effect (as well as its variance) in this population for a later, large-scale study. A previously validated 1-day CBT workshop has been adapted for depression for use with women experiencing PPD and living in the community. 30 women will be randomized to active treatment (n=15) or a 12 week wait list (n=15) in each setting and compare changes in depression, mother-infant attachment, service utilization, quality of life, and offspring behaviour.
This study is looking at genetic, biological, and environmental causes and how all three may work together to cause postpartum mood episodes. Participants will have psychiatric histories taken and will be monitored throughout pregnancy and during the postpartum period for the development of depressive or other mood episodes. Biological measures, including hormone levels, immunological measures, and growth factors will be collected. Environmental factors such as sleep deprivation and stress will also be measured. These factors will be considered in the setting of genetic and epigenetic data with the hope that investigators will ultimately be able to predict the onset of postpartum mood episodes in this vulnerable population.
Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) encompass both third and fourth degree perineal tears. These tears can have a significant impact on women's quality of life in the short and long term. One of the most distressing immediate complications of this severe perineal injury is perineal pain. Women can also experience postpartum depression, dyspareunia, and altered sexual function after OASIS. This is a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of three interventions (placebo, low dose intravenous ketamine plus epidural morphine, or epidural morphine alone) on acute pain after OASIS. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence of perineal pain in postpartum patients 1 week after obstetric anal sphincter injuries.
During this project the investigators will develop and pilot test a companion intervention for fathers (Fathers and Babies-FAB), to supplement the Mothers and Babies Course (MB) that provides stress and mood management tools for home visiting clients. Focus groups with prior study participants, their male partners, and home visiting staff will be used to develop the FAB curriculum and protocol. FAB text messages aim to improve the mental health of the male partner and help him support his partner's mental health. Feasibility, acceptability, and outcome measures will be supplemented with assessments of fathers' mental health and partners' relationships. Participant assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 and 6 months in this uncontrolled pilot study. The public health significance and innovation of this project is substantial. If the investigators are able to integrate MB-TXT and MB-DAD into home visiting programs and generate improved mental health outcomes for home visiting clients and their partners, the investigators will be prepared to replicate this intervention across home visiting programs nationally at a time when home visitation as a service delivery model for families with infants and young children is rapidly proliferating through federal funding.
This project is aimed at enhancing the effectiveness and scalability of the Mothers and Babies 1-on-1 Course (MB) among home visiting programs. MB is a manualized 12-session postpartum depression prevention intervention guided by cognitive-behavioral therapy and attachment theory. Each session lasts 15-20 minutes and is delivered as part of a regularly scheduled home visit. Previous MB trials suggest that the intervention is less successful for women who exhibit smaller changes in hypothesized intervention mechanisms and less fully engaged in completion of personal projects. This study will determine the feasibility and acceptability of conducting MB-TXT, in which home visiting clients receive MB supplemented by a series of weekly text messages focused on skill reinforcement, personal project reminders, and self-monitoring of depressive symptoms. The investigators will also calculate a preliminary effect size that could be used to calculate sample size necessary for a future fully powered randomized controlled trial that examines MB-TXT efficacy. The investigators will use a stepped wedge design—a form of randomized controlled trial that involves sequential, but random, roll-out of the intervention over multiple time periods. The investigators have created two HV program clusters. Both clusters will initially implement MB 1-on-1 and will recruit MB participants for one quarter (i.e., three months) before crossing over to recruit MB-TXT participants for one quarter. MB-TXT's core curriculum is identical to MB 1-on-1 and adds a series of text messages throughout the curriculum. Feasibility and acceptability data will be collected from clients and home visitors to assess percentages of received text messages, home visitor adherence to sending texts at specified intervals, and clients' perceptions of text message utility and clarity. If the investigators are able to integrate MB-TXT and home visiting programs and generate improved mental health outcomes for clients, the investigators will be prepared to replicate this intervention across home visiting programs nationally at a time when home visiting as a service delivery model is rapidly proliferating via federal Maternal Infant and and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program funding.
A mobile support application will be developed that will support mothers in the postpartum period and will be tested the effects of application on anxiety and depression symptoms.The study will consist of two phases. The first phase of the action research (participant design method) method will be done to provide postpartum mobile support application. In the second stage, postpartum mobile support application will be evaluated for the anxiety and depression symptoms of the mothers after six weeks of use.
Postpartum depression is common in mothers early after childbirth and produces harmful effects not only on mothers, but also on infants and young children. Parturients with prenatal depression are at increased of postpartum depression. Low-dose ketamine can be used for antidepressant therapy. We hypothesize that low-dose ketamine has a therapeutic effect on parturients with prenatal depression. This study is designed to investigate whether low-dose ketamine administered during cesarean delivery can decrease the incidence of postpartum depression in parturients with prenatal depression.
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 20% of women and has profound effects on mothers and their infants. Unfortunately, fewer than 15% of women with PPD receive evidence-based care. This is at least partly due to significant difficulties faced by women in accessing cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), a preferred 1st line treatment. In Ontario at present, there is a significant lack of personnel trained to deliver CBT. This study will utilize a randomized controlled trial design (with wait list controls) and recruit 70 participants to determine if women with a past history of PPD (i.e., lay peers) can be trained to deliver effective group CBT to women with current PPD. If peers can be trained to provide effective CBT, more women would receive treatment and the burden of PPD on women, families, and the healthcare system would be significantly reduced.