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Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality worldwide accounting for 25% of maternal deaths. In Zimbabwe PPH is the second most common cause of death. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding trauma patients, and menorrhagia. The investigators seek to determine the efficacy of TXA in reducing PPH during and after elective caesarean section. Methods and Design The investigators intend to perform an open label randomized control study of 1,162 women who are undergoing elective caesarean section. The participants will be randomly selected to receive an intravenous infusion of TXA 10 minutes prior to skin incision or not to receive the intervention. Prophylactic oxytocin will be administered to all the women. The primary outcome will be incidence of PPH defined by blood loss equal to or more than 1,000ml calculated by determining the difference in haematocrit values taken prior to and 48 hours after caesarean section. Discussion In addition to prophylactic uterotonic administration, TXA is a complementary component acting on the haemostatic process that can be used in the third stage of labour to prevent PPH. It is a promising intervention that is cheap, easy to administer and would be easy to add to routine delivery protocols in hospitals. It would also help to conserve precious resources by reducing the need for blood products, and expensive surgical interventions to manage PPH. This large adequately powered randomized study seeks to determine the efficacy of TXA to validate its routine use at caesarean section to prevent PPH.
comparison of the effect of misoprostol before and after cesarean on the blood loss
The aim of the study is to determine if thromboelastography parameters can be predictive of severe post partum hemorrhage.
Placenta accreta is an obstetrical complication where the placenta becomes firmly adherent to the uterine wall. Placenta accreta can lead to considerable maternal morbidity and mortality due to hemorrhage, infection, or other surgical complications such as those resulting from hysterectomy. Retained placenta accreta is usually a rare condition, but its prevalence is increasing due to the rise in the rate of deliveries by Cesarean section. Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. The incidence of placenta accreta has increased and seems to parallel the increasing cesarean delivery rate. Women at greatest risk of placenta accreta are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean delivery with either an anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. Diagnosis of placenta accreta before delivery allows multidisciplinary planning in an attempt to minimize potential maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Bleeding is still the major cause of mortality and morbidity in postpartum period. World health organization has reported 585000 deaths for pregnancy each year. Twenty five percent of cases die from post-partum bleeding. Mean amount of blood lost is 500 ml during normal vaginal delivery, 1000 ml in cesarean section, and 3500 ml during cesarean section with emergency hysterectomy
Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal, uterine atony accounts for 75-90% of primary postpartum hemorrhage. The efficacy of the Uterine compression suture in the treatment of atonic postpartum hemorrhage is time-tested and can be said to be almost established .The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Mansoura-VV uterine compression suture as an early intervention in the management of primary atonic postpartum hemorrhage.
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occurs in up to one in ten deliveries worldwide and is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In developing countries 30% of women develop PPH because access to a number of treatments is not readily available. Interestingly, the rate of PPH and consequently of maternal morbidity has increased significantly even in developed nations, such as Canada, over the past decades. This rate is also increasing amongst parturients in Ontario. Unfortunately, few effective preventative treatments exist. Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used to reduce bleeding and the requirement for blood transfusions in a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug is tranexamic acid (TXA). TXA is safe, affordable, with very few side effects. The World Health Organization recommended that TXA be used to reduce blood loss in several conditions, including in patients with established PPH refractory to conventional therapy.However, little is known about the prophylactic use of TXA to prevent PPH.
The incidence of severe post-partum hemorrhage has been increasing in developed countries. The reason for this is at least partially unknown. Surgical techniques, holistic treatment protocols and strategies in blood product administration may have changed patient outcome and, for example the incidence of transfusion related side effects. A retrospective analysis of the whole cohort of parturients in 2009-2015 in Tampere University Hospital will be made to assess the risk factors for severe PPH (ie. estimated blood loss more than 1500ml during delivery) and examine the possible change in blood transfusion strategies and its effect on bleeding (for example, implementation of massive transfusion protocol, amount of blood products used, effect of red blood cell:fresh-frozen plasma ratio, use of pharmacological agents for coagulation management, introduction of new angiological and surgical techniques etc.) and complications, laboratory parameters and patient outcome.
200 women will be randomly divided into 2 equal groups using computer generated random numbers. Group 1 will receive Carbetocin 100 µgm (Pabal® Ferring, UK) and group 2 will receive ergometrine 0.5mg (methergin®, Novartis, Switzerland).
Post-Partum Hemorrhage (PPH) is a common obstetrical complication. It may occur after both vaginal and cesarean delivery with a reported prevalence of 4-6% of deliveries . Prophylactic treatment with oxytocin after fetus extraction is a common practice. [1,2]Transexamic acid - Hexakapron is a potent antifibrinolytic, it prevents lysine adhesion to plasminogen molecules by blocking its binding site. It can lower fibrinolysis rate and by that reduce bleeding . Systematic treatment of anti-fibrinolytic drugs is in surgical practice after procedures such as coronary artery bypass graft, orthopedic surgeries and liver transplantation [10-13]. Hexakapron is an FDA approved drug, it is defined as a class B drug for pregnancy and lactation , it is already being used in a non-routine fashion in the delivery room during PPH.In obstetrics Hexakapron given before vaginal or cesarean delivery has been presumed to decrease blood loss and PPH. 2 studies that included 453 woman reported decrease in PPH (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.72) [13-15]. However specific protocols for prophylactic treatment with Hexakapron as available with oxytocin are lacking, and further research is necessary to determine such guidelines .