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Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of maternal deaths. Its prognosis is directly influenced by the early diagnosis and treatment of the associated coagulopathy. In this context, fibrinogen concentration is the best predictor of a severe PPH. The medical interest of thromboelastography/elastometry to early detect and guide the rapid correction of coagulopathy in PPH is regularly discussed. The principal aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a new hemostasis point of care device (thromboelastography - TEG ®6S) for the diagnosis of coagulopathy during PPH. A secondary aim will be to determine the normal values of TEG6S at the end of a normal pregnancy.
The patients were recruited from women attending labor ward to undergo cesarean section.
Objective: To investigate the effect of A glove-loaded Foley's catheter tamponade versus stepwise uterine devascularization on blood loss during cesarean section (CS) in patients with complete placenta previa.
Published trials on tranexamic acid (TxA) for prevention have used a variety of fixed (0.5gm or 1gm) and body-weight adjusted (10mg/kg or 15mg/kg) doses of TxA. Given the wide range of bodyweights of pregnant women in contemporary obstetric practice, it is critical to determine the minimum effective dose of TxA, so as to avoid under- or over-dosing. The rationale of this study is to determine the minimum effective dose of TxA that is required to attain therapeutic plasma levels of TxA, established at 5-15mg/L, following administration of a single dose of intravenous (IV) TxA after childbirth and the clamping the umbilical cord, and before delivery of the placenta. Following birth of the infant, and upon clamping the umbilical cord, the investigators will administer a single dose of IV TxA in 100ml of 0.9% sodium chloride at 50mg/min according to the dose-escalation schedule described below. The slow rate of infusion has been chosen to prevent untoward effects such as hypotension that have been noted when the rate of infusion has exceeded 100mg/min. As part of the dose-escalation design, the investigators will start with 5mg/kg, half the smallest described dose, on a sample of up to 5 women. They will continue to administer TxA doses in increments of 5mg/kg to each successive batch of 5 women. If the number of treatment successes cannot statistically rule out a value < 75% (< 4 of 5 women are successes due to values in the low range), the dose will be increased by 5mg/kg for the next set of 5 women, and so on, until a maximum dose of 30mg/kg is reached, a dose deemed safe based on earlier studies in different populations. Once treatment success is determined at a certain dose, i.e. 4/5 women have levels in the therapeutic range), a total of 20 women will be administered that dose to ensure that 75% i.e. 18/20 women are successes at that dose.
Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality worldwide accounting for 25% of maternal deaths. In Zimbabwe PPH is the second most common cause of death. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding trauma patients, and menorrhagia. The investigators seek to determine the efficacy of TXA in reducing PPH during and after elective caesarean section. Methods and Design The investigators intend to perform an open label randomized control study of 1,162 women who are undergoing elective caesarean section. The participants will be randomly selected to receive an intravenous infusion of TXA 10 minutes prior to skin incision or not to receive the intervention. Prophylactic oxytocin will be administered to all the women. The primary outcome will be incidence of PPH defined by blood loss equal to or more than 1,000ml calculated by determining the difference in haematocrit values taken prior to and 48 hours after caesarean section. Discussion In addition to prophylactic uterotonic administration, TXA is a complementary component acting on the haemostatic process that can be used in the third stage of labour to prevent PPH. It is a promising intervention that is cheap, easy to administer and would be easy to add to routine delivery protocols in hospitals. It would also help to conserve precious resources by reducing the need for blood products, and expensive surgical interventions to manage PPH. This large adequately powered randomized study seeks to determine the efficacy of TXA to validate its routine use at caesarean section to prevent PPH.
comparison of the effect of misoprostol before and after cesarean on the blood loss
The aim of the study is to determine if thromboelastography parameters can be predictive of severe post partum hemorrhage.
Placenta accreta is an obstetrical complication where the placenta becomes firmly adherent to the uterine wall. Placenta accreta can lead to considerable maternal morbidity and mortality due to hemorrhage, infection, or other surgical complications such as those resulting from hysterectomy. Retained placenta accreta is usually a rare condition, but its prevalence is increasing due to the rise in the rate of deliveries by Cesarean section. Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. The incidence of placenta accreta has increased and seems to parallel the increasing cesarean delivery rate. Women at greatest risk of placenta accreta are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean delivery with either an anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. Diagnosis of placenta accreta before delivery allows multidisciplinary planning in an attempt to minimize potential maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Bleeding is still the major cause of mortality and morbidity in postpartum period. World health organization has reported 585000 deaths for pregnancy each year. Twenty five percent of cases die from post-partum bleeding. Mean amount of blood lost is 500 ml during normal vaginal delivery, 1000 ml in cesarean section, and 3500 ml during cesarean section with emergency hysterectomy
Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal, uterine atony accounts for 75-90% of primary postpartum hemorrhage. The efficacy of the Uterine compression suture in the treatment of atonic postpartum hemorrhage is time-tested and can be said to be almost established .The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Mansoura-VV uterine compression suture as an early intervention in the management of primary atonic postpartum hemorrhage.