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It is very common to perform nerve blocks for hand and wrist surgery. It allows the surgeon to perform the surgery and helps with pain control after surgery. This also means only light sedation is needed for the procedure instead of a general anesthetic, which speeds up recovery time. There are 2 types of nerve blocks that can be done for hand and/or wrist surgery. The one that is done commonly now is where the whole arm is frozen with local anesthetic. Another option is to have a nerve block where only the arm from the elbow down is frozen. Either of these types of nerve blocks can be chosen to safely accomplish surgery of the hand or wrist. However, the best nerve block for hand and/or wrist surgery has not been decided yet. In order to determine which block is best, the investigators will be looking at patient satisfaction with the experience, as well as the surgical conditions provided and overall safety. It is thought that many patients may prefer the arm block below the elbow as it allows for greater mobility immediately following surgery, and the surgical conditions provided will be very similar to those of the full arm nerve block.
This will be a comparative study between two cohorts of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass. One cohort (75 patients) will receive FDA approved Exparel® (liposome bupivacaine injection solution) injections intra-operatively at time of incision site closure. The control cohort (75 patients) will receive 0.25% bupivacaine injection solution at the time of incision site closure. The medication for the control group is our current standard of care. The primary end point is post-operative pain at 24 and 48 hours measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Comparison will be made between cohorts. All subjects enrolled in the study will be evaluated per nursing protocol with the verbal numerical analog scale. At 24 and 48 hours a member of the research team will administer a 2-part questionnaire containing the VAS and the Revised American Pain Society Post-Operative Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R). The latter is validated for assessment of the patient's experience of pain and it hindrance to daily activity in the post operative period.
The investigators noticed that Body Fat Ratio might have great influence on the efficacy of different lipid soluble anesthetics. The objective of this clinical trial was to compare the effect of that Body Fat Ratio on the efficacy of different lipid soluble anesthetics.