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obstetric hemorrhage remains one of the major causes of maternal death in both developed and developing countries. Because of its importance as a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, and because of evidence of substandard care in the majority of fatal cases, obstetric hemorrhage must be considered as a priority topic for national guideline development. Some obstetricians believe that the cervix of women at non-labor cesarean section is undilated and might cause obstruction of blood or lochia drainage, leading to postpartum hemorrhage and endometritis from the collection of lochia or debris. Dilatation of the cervix helps with the drainage of blood during postpartum, reducing intrauterine infection or the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. To avoid this problem, some obstetricians routinely dilate the cervix from above during an elective/ non-labor cesarean section using finger, sponge forceps or other instruments
Decompressive craniectomy is frequently used to treat increased intracranial pressure or an intracranial mass effect. Trephined Syndrome describes a neurological deterioration, which is attributed to a large craniectomy. The symptomatology is varied but includes headache, aggravation of a hemisyndrome or cognitive disorders, often has an orthostatic component and improves or disappears with cranioplasty. The incidence of Trephined Syndrome has been reported between 7% and 26%. However, it might be underestimated if the course of cognitive functions before and after cranioplasty were insufficiently documented.
Prophylactic use of tranexamic acid to reduce intra and postoperative bleeding in primary sleeve gastrectomy procedures will be studied.
Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Versus Pericervical Tourniquet To Decrease Blood Loss In Trans-Abdominal Myomectomy
Tonsillectomy (removal of the tonsils) is a very common surgery in children. Bleeding after tonsillectomy is one of the risks of this surgery and can be more dangerous in children since they have less blood volume than adults. In order to improve recovery after tonsillectomy, steroids (medication that is a strong anti-inflammatory) are often given during the surgery. Recently, a study showed steroids given at the time of tonsillectomy increase the risk of bleeding significantly over children who did not receive steroids. This finding has raised concerns in the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) community since most ENT's use steroids during tonsillectomy in children. The investigators look to explore this question further. To answer the question of whether perioperative steroid administration significantly affects the rate of post-tonsillectomy bleeding, the investigators propose to test the following hypotheses in a prospective, randomized, blinded placebo-controlled trial: dexamethasone does not cause an increase in post-operative bleeding rate in tonsillectomy.