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NCT number NCT03491072
Study type Interventional
Source Ain Shams University
Status Active, not recruiting
Phase N/A
Start date February 20, 2018
Completion date July 2018

Clinical Trial Summary

This study evaluates pain relief during extracorporeal shock-wave Lithotripsy by using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and comparing it with fentanyl which is a narcotic analgesic. Half of the participants will receive a primary fentanyl dose together with TENS application, another half will receive a primary fentanyl dose. All patients will receive fentanyl increments if they still complained of pain.

Clinical Trial Description

The ideal anesthesia technique for ESWL must provide good analgesia, sufficient sedation, and rapid recovery with minimal side effects. Opioids are commonly used analgesics during ESWL. Fentanyl is a potent synthetic narcotic, which has rapid onset and a short duration of action, it offers an acceptable analgesia during ESWL but has a noticeable respiratory depression.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a method in which low voltage electrical impulses transmit through electrodes attached to the skin over a painful area. It is usually used to relieve a variety of painful conditions. A TENS unit contains electrical signal generator, a battery in addition to a set of electrodes. The TENS is small, programmable and the generator can deliver stimuli with different current intensities, pulse rates and pulse width.

The mechanism of analgesia by TENS has been explained by many theories. the gate control theory by Melzack and Wall, stated that "when an electrical current is applied to a painful area, transmission of pain through small diameter fibers is inhibited by the activity of the large diameter, fast-conducting proprioceptive sensory fibers, closing the gate to the pain perception to the brain". Another mechanism suggested is activation of descending inhibitory pathway, via release of endogenous opioids.

Study Design

Related Conditions & MeSH terms

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